Author Archives: Völkisch Pagan

Wotanism: Toward an Existentialist View

Source: Else Christensen’s “The Odinist” periodical 1989, Issue #123. Author: P.W.

Existentialism is the term given to the spiritual and intellectual rebellion arising over the last 150 years or so amongst European thinkers against established Judeo-Christian religion and systems of philosophy which have failed to offer a satisfactory explanation of Man and his place in the universe. More specifically, the existentialists have sought to transcend theologies and metaphysics to understand the concrete reality of the human situation, the plight of the existing individual.

There is no body of doctrine common to all existentialists, but rather a matrix of shared concerns or themes: the significance of human existence, man’s alienation from himself, from his fellows, and from the world in general, and the extent of individual freedom and responsibility.

The analytical method of many existentialists is phenomenology, the perception and description of the various aspects of “Isness” (existing things and processes), especially of consciousness, without conceptual prejudice or evaluative intent.

Perhaps the most constructive and influential of the existentialists is Martin Heidegger (1889-1976). Heidegger did not accept the label “existentialist’, but considered himself an “ontologist” (one who studies Being). Nevertheless, Heidegger’s profound explorations into what it means to be a human in interaction with Reality not only fully qualify him as an existential philosopher, but mark him as possibly the greatest.

Heathen man, as best exemplified by the pre-Socratic Greeks, lived in a state of intimate connection with and deep awareness of Being, maintains Heidegger. This “Being”, he explains, is not merely Nature, but also the ground, basis, of Nature; it is the very power of things to emerge and endure. Heidegger refers to man’s creativity arising out of conscious connectedness with Being as spirit.

The source of man’s uneasiness with his own existence, his failure to be all he could be, is his enervated spirit, his “falling out of being”, his ever-growing preoccupation with the object of his environment, with things, with “Beings” rather than with the totality of Being, Heidegger terms this “forfeiture”.

European man’s estrangement from Being was given a specious respectability by Plato’s philosophy of dualistic idealism, which claimed that ‘real’ Reality was somewhere ‘up there’, away from the physical universe which was only an imperfect reflection of that ultimately true ‘Ideal’.

This schizophrenic dualism reached its epitome in organized Judeo-Christianity, whose centuries of mind-warping other-worldliness lingers on to confound us.

Yet another form of dualism, the subject/object dichotomy popularized by Descartes, strongly influenced the scientific method and formed the basis of the secular ideologies of “progress” and technology worship, capitalist and Marxist alike.

Thus, according to Heidegger, even as man advances materially he leads an evermore “inauthentic” existence, wallowing in his obsession with trivia, stifling his potential by yielding to mindless conformity. With technical prowess actually undermining, instead of enhancing, man’s spirit, the “darkening of the world” accelerates, by which Heidegger means “the flight of the gods, the destruction of the Earth, the standardization of man, the preeminence of the mediocre… emasculation of the spirit, the disintegration, wasting away, repression and misinterpretation of the spirit.”

Man must re-forge his primal linkage with Being, he must become a “shepherd and watcher of Being”, overcoming all deceptive dualisms to understand not just cerebrally but in his very guts his total interdependence with the world, physically and temporally as well – remembering the past, in tune with the present, and mindful of the future. But this man can do only by fearlessly confronting his existential situation, and that entails acknowledging the awful reality of death, the looming spectre of Nothingness.

For Heidegger, Nothingness is not simply a vacuum, some final negation of Being; rather Nothingness is ingrained in Being; Nothingness is the dynamo of Being; Being and Nothingness are locked together in an inescapable dialectic. Man achieves authenticity when this dialectical truth takes roots in his soul.

Forgetfulness of death, of Nothingness, means forgetfulness of Being; and it is precisely this forgetfulness which modern thought-systems seek to instigate, whether as theologies which promise eternal afterlife or as justifications for materialism which fool man into seeing himself in some commodity.

In other words, man must not hide from his historic and existential responsibilities, he must not seek a dubious comfort in intellectual narcotics, be they religious or political; he must not forget himself in the cozy anonymity of the crowd; he must not fritter away his life in the pursuit and possession of materialist tinsel. To be truly alive, man must face up to the fact of his finitude, his inevitable appointment with oblivion, and construct his life on that realization. Only in this way can man truly appreciate Being, and thereby truly appreciate himself.

We believe that Wotanism can fill the prescription offered by Heidegger to reconnect us with Being, to reverse the ‘flight of the gods’ and bring these primordial forces, the avatars of Being, back into our consciousness.

Wotanism has the power to restore the ruptured bonds of the past, to recall our pre-Christian, pre-dualistic state of existential purity and reveal its relevance to our contemporary circumstances.

An examination of the Nine Principles of the Wotanist Fellowship in the light of the insights of Heidegger and other existentialists may be useful in establishing Wotanism as a durable ontology:

(1) We acknowledge Wotan as the All-Father, the Ultimate Reality, the Force of the Universe.

“Wotan” is the personification of cosmic power as perceived by our Norse ancestors. Etymologically, “Wotan” is synonymous with power, movement, source of movement, fury, rage and inspiration.

Just as the Indo-Aryans’ god Brahma was based on their earlier perception of an impersonal Absolute they termed Brahman, so also was the Wotanic Being mythologized as the “All-Father”; and among His other titles are Smiter, Destroyer, Protector, All-Knowing and Fulfiller of Wishes.

Wotan was a relative late-comer to the Indo-European pantheon. He displaced as Sky-Father the god Tyr, who in turn descended from Tiwas, a variation of the Aryan “Dyes” meaning “Shining One”, a reference to the sun.

As a mythic figure Wotan himself was subject to the inexorable laws of the cosmos, as related in our Folk’s epic cycle of creation and destruction. But as the embodiment of Energy/Universal Law, as an emanation of what we call the “God-Force”, Wotan is that very Absolute immemorial.

Wotan can be justly described as the Existential God, because to the Norse He represented the implacability of Reality, the dark side of Life in a ruthless age. For Wotan was the God of war, the god of the dead, a fickle, untrustworthy deity who promised no earthly rewards.

Yet He was also the god of wisdom, and wisdom it was – and is – to recognize what the existentialists came to call the “contingency of human existence”: the fact that the universe can get along perfectly well without man, be he individual or species – a truth our forebears knew in their bones when they deified Annihilation.

But the complete truth is to be seen in the Heideggerian unity of Annihilation and Creation, Being and Nothingness. Wotan is this Divine Dynamic, evident in the furies of Nature and in the turbulent vigor of man wherein raging passions and inspired insightfulness coexist. And Mimir whispers to us that all these things are One!

Thus, Wotan’s ‘good news’ is not ‘pie in the sky when you die’, but “Life is All and Life is Struggle!”

(2) Man advances individually and collectively only by living in harmony with the Natural Order.

How is it possible for man, as much a part of Nature as any rock, tree or bird, not to be in harmony with Natural Order? How could man, a manifestation of Being, ‘fall out of being”?

Western man has frequently gazed with envy at the lifestyles of primitive peoples, those ‘noble savages’ who clearly live in deeper rapport with the rhythms of Nature; yet, with some justification he feels superior to such peoples whose vulnerability and powerlessness in the face of Nature’s immoderation and History’s onslaught he considers the mark of man’s ‘underdeveloped’ mind – this contradiction gnaws at the soul of the Aryan even as his left-brain dominance / rationalist supremacy fosters a runaway industrialism that gnaws at the heart of the organic world and poisons its bloodstream.

Forfeiture has been institutionalized. Social dogmas and political ideologies rationalize the greedy stupidity of power elites which manipulate the befuddled individuals of mass society and promote, indeed profit from, in-authenticity, from Everyman’s false consciousness.

At the root of it all, some suggest, is Euro-man’s ‘overspecialized mind’, a mind which came more into predominance as the European sought to gain greater mastery over and ‘improve’ upon his natural surroundings by means of the techniques of civilization, thereby cutting the umbilical cord to Being and weakening, at least to some extent, that sense of oneness with the organic world that was fashioned during his formative years on the plains of the Pleistocene.

This ‘overspecialized’ mind tends to perceive in terms of a subject/object duality which is psychologically isolating. Disconnectedness from Nature, from kinsman, and from self ensues. Being is misperceived through a haze of abstract rationality and a fog of distorting emotions. Language itself has come to reinforce this dualistic obfuscation, as Heidegger points out.

This problem was dealt with thousands of years ago by our Indo-Aryan ancestors who in their religious traditions called it “avidya”, ignorance, the failure to use the “no-thought mind” of intuitive knowing – “Pleistocene mind”. If we credit adaptive evolution with having given Aryan man a ‘technological’ brain, then we must also see evolution as the molder of that brain’s ‘overspecialized’ mind.

Overspecialization is a perfectly natural byproduct of a perfectly natural developmental process that is without aim or design. Aryan man’s ‘overspecialized’ mind is no more an anomaly than the Dimetrodon’s sail-like back fin, the sabre-toothed tiger’s long curved fangs, or the giraffe’s elongated neck. The cosmos abounds with such ‘aberrations’, from the planet Uranus rotating on its side to entire galaxies colliding; and if man cannot grow out of his particular ‘aberration’ of juvenile dualism, then extinction will surely be his fate – an unremarkable fate, not even a burp in the universe.

Thus, man’s apparent disharmonies appear in perspective as part of a greater overall harmony.

Man has an edge in participating in that harmony, an advantage over every other species: ‘overspecialized’ mind notwithstanding, he has the ability to become conscious of his delusive tendencies and transcend them, provided he can muster the resolve to do so.

History will pass judgment on Euro-man’s collective biological mind, as to whether it is truly overspecialized, over-adapted, and effectively self-destructive, or whether it is simply in some tantrum of immaturity prior to a more lucid equilibrium. But individually speaking, Indo-Aryan wisdom teaches that the harmonious mind is ever-present within us; we need only realize it.

To be in Being, or not to be – that is the question!

(3) Life with all its joys, struggles and ambiguities is to be embraced and lived to the fullest.

Heidegger says that living human experience is the pathway to Being – which echoes a truth taught for centuries by the Zen masters. An ancient saying puts it another way: the unexamined life is not worth living.

To know Being through life, we need to live mindfully, in a state of openness and awareness, becoming skillful at what’s been called the art of living.

Honing those skills is essential, because this life is all that we can really be sure we have: this relatively brief process of becoming, flashing out of nothingness and fading back into nothingness, with only some meager physical creations, a scattering of genes and the memory of our deeds left behind.

Swallowing promises of eternal after-life, impossible to verify, only cheapens real life; while blindly following mind-numbing ideologies that promise heaven on earth burns up the one chance we have to know ourselves and fully develop our potentials.

As noted previously, life is struggle: your very existence is due only to the fact that your ancestors killed, out-fought their enemies and persevered through every hardship – a fact which the preachers of indiscriminate ‘love’ and ‘nonviolence’ would do well to contemplate.

Of course, it’s not all battle axes and bloodshed; a hearty laugh is always in order, especially when some other-worldly wimp tells us that life’s pleasures, the joys of the flesh, are ‘sins’.

All the barriers to a full life must be torn down. Suffering in its various forms is inherent in life, but there is also an accretion of ‘surprise suffering’, unnecessary misery caused by outmoded beliefs and obsolete social and political systems. The struggle against these is not just altruism in action, it is the will to achieve that fuller life.

(4) The racialist and cultural heritage of our folk is our most sacred possession and must be satisfied.

A significant portion of man’s current state of alienation stems from his loss of identity; man doesn’t know who, what or why he is.

The pre-packaged answers being peddled today just don’t suffice: Judeo-Christianity incites man to war against his instincts and common sense; the cult of the consumer leaves man bored, empty and yearning for something more; ideologies of compulsory collectivism stifle his individuality; philosophies of egoism violate his We-feeling; “New Age” spiritualisms outrage his rationality.

Where can he turn?

He can turn to the primary fact of his own material existence and see the organic truth that he is an individual spawn from a collectivity, one link in a racial chain extending back into the past.

It has been said that race is the outward expression of soul; and while this aphorism may have the aroma of metaphysics, it is a poetic way of saying that race (or more accurately, our total genetic inheritance) is the essence which in-forms our existence.

So, Jean-Paul Sartre, the French existentialist, didn’t quite hit the mark when he proclaimed “Existence precedes essence”, by which he meant that, as there is no fixed human nature, man has the freedom and the responsibility to shape that nature. This can only be true in a limited sense, for, man’s existence, along with the self-creative capacity Sartre speaks of, is substantially conditioned by biology, by race.

Anthropologist Carlton Coon’s research into racial origins reveals that racial characteristics had emerged among our primate ancestors even before they – meaning we – evolved into Homo sapiens.

We therefore suggest the formula “Ethnos precedes existence, existence precedes essence”.

Although every race and ethnic group is threatened by cosmopolitanism and homogenization, our chief concern must be for our own folk, an endangered minority. We support the awakening of racial consciousness for all peoples as a bulwark against assimilation.

Mixed race people can take pride in their diverse origins and form themselves into a new composite ‘folk’, or simply regard themselves as generic human beings if they so desire. As Wotanists we have no interest in impugning their human dignity. We do insist on our own inviolable right to racial integrity, and will respect all who respect us.

This is not ‘hatred’ or ‘prejudice’, nor an attempt to justify the oppression or exploitation of one race by another; it is a plea to preserve absolutely unique, non-repeatable living phenomena, it is a call to maintain the genetic diversity of the human family; it is a demand for racial ecology.

Culture is the totality of a race’s achievements, the expression of the racial soul, the sum of a people’s past persisting into the present and into the future. Heidegger notes how man’s losing touch with his past has contributed to the “darkening of the world”; and every day huge chunks of our Aryan cultural heritage disappear down the dark, materialistic maw of ‘me-now’ modernity.

Consumerism corrupts culture, crushes folkways and corrodes man right down to his instinctual core, his last legacy from the past, those primeval urges and blood-born impulses rooted in his mammal-hood, now subjected to the titillations and manipulations of Madison Ave., but also more and more frequently erupting into the animal protests we call ‘crime’ and ‘mental illness’.

But man is not a mere consumer, nor simply a raging beast; he is a creator, and to create now and in the future he must know what he has created in the past, and how he felt, thought and lived in the past.

Wotanism seeks the re-appropriation of our past, of what is of and for us as the ever-sprouting seed of our becoming.

Man’s racial heritage tells him who he is, his cultural heritage tells him what he is, it is then up to him to work out his own way.

(5) A community of, by and for the folk is our paramount objective.

Is any kind of real community even possible in the tumultuous conditions of the modern world? Can man overcome what seems to be a kind of entropy rampant at all social levels, disintegrating the bonds of friendship, family, community and nation?

Sartre thought not, declaring that “We” is an illusion. He saw human interaction as leading either to exploitation, with the dominated party reduced to an object, or to the stalemated confrontation of two mutually incomprehensible human monads.

Fortunately, history and social praxis repudiate Sartre’s subjective pessimism, but at the same time delineate formidable obstacles to community.

Man is a social animal: he joins with his kinsmen in social organizations strongly resembling those of his relatives, the baboons and chimpanzees, and for the same reasons: co-operative behavior is programmed into his genes. Man as individual only becomes whole and complete, only becomes an authentic personality, within the context of community, as part of a natural social order.

But man has evolved to the point where his ‘rational’ mind largely supersedes or at least tempers his instincts; genetic predisposition creates a tendency allowing for wide latitudes, rather than a rigid imperative, as in the lower creatures. Man must therefore contrive various structures and devices to help maintain social cohesion.

Blood is the organic basis for community, and shared beliefs – specifically, religion – is the social basis. “Religion” actually means “to bind together”, and this is, or should be, its function: to bind man to Being, to Nature, and to his kinfolk.

Every folk generates its own religious vision; undeniably, common themes are shared by all these visions; nevertheless, each one is unique, featuring nuances of perception and variations of morality peculiar to each folk. Thus, the imposition of one people’s religion upon another can have grave, disruptive consequences.

Such an imposition is the source of much of our Folk’s persistent spiritual confusion. Organized Christianity’s religious imperialism effectively destroyed our folk religion and our folk communities. Of course, the Folk has nobody to blame for this but itself. Any people is collectively responsible before history for its own ongoing weakness, disorganization and resultant vulnerability.

Our historic victimization must end. We must go from being a folk in itself to a Folk for itself, and the self-conscious folk community is the vehicle for this process.

The folk community is bonded by blood and belief; each by itself is inadequate to cement the community together.

Current events testify to this truth. Japanese society is extremely homogeneous racially, yet it displays all the alienating afflictions of modern materialistic industrialism (although perhaps to a somewhat lesser degree than the ‘pluralist’ societies of the West), despite a strong tradition of folk religion. Cosmopolitan capitalism as a secular pseudo-religion will supplant or co-opt genuine religion unless genuine religion aggressively counterattacks (as has Islamic Fundamentalism).

Religion alone, however cannot guarantee social unity, nor for long suppress or overpower differences of blood. Blood proved thicker than religion in the recent Iran-Iraq war, when the majority Arab Shias of Iraq failed to unite with their antagonistic Persian co-religionists, choosing instead national-ethnic solidarity with their Sunni Arab ruling stratum. And in the US increasing numbers of Black Catholics are opting for a distinctly African-American style of worship at the risk of schism with the official, predominantly White, church.

Encouragingly, the up and coming trend in the world today is precisely towards this union of blood and belief, a form of neo-tribalism. The Druze of Lebanon, the militant Sikhs of India, the Moro rebels of the Philippines, Islamic radicals throughout Central Asia, the Black Muslims, even nationalist Jewish orthodox extremists, among others, are all facets of this world-wide phenomenon.

So, self-determination and the preservation of ethnic and religious identity rightly constitute our paramount objective, as they should for every people, because the alternative is genocide, which is accomplished just as thoroughly and finally by means of assimilation as it is by ‘killing fields’.

In fact, these separatist principles, far from generating hatred and strife, are a guarantee for peace and mutual respect amongst the peoples, nations and faiths of the world, because they are aspirations shared by all humanity.

The Folk community is not some utopian goal for the distant future. It is an institution attainable here and now, provided we summon the courage and wisdom to build it. We can draw on the West’s communalist heritage, from the medieval guilds to anarchist collectives to hippie communes, more so as regards the experience of religious communities, such as the Amish and the Hutterites; we could even learn something from the Hasidic Jews and the kibbutz movement.

However we do it, the Folk community must arise if the people and religion of Wotan are to survive. It is a formidable task: the folk community entails ways of living – thinking, working, relating – so different from what we are used to in our privatizing ‘consumer’ society as to be positively revolutionary, perhaps also a bit disquieting, but only because it would mean a return to long-absent, psycho-social health after a lengthy disease.

Sartre’s dismal picture of human interaction is not what we have been or must be; it is what we often are and may very well be our consummation unless we assert ourselves for community.

Another French existentialist, Gabriel Marcel, has a view more positive than Sartre’s, insisting that our relationship with other persons is prerequisite for the growth of freedom, the becoming of what we are. Marcel, striking a Heideggerian chord, says further that living enmeshes us in a web of interdependence with others, with all of Being, a condition which we become aware of when we deeply and fearlessly reflect upon existence, when we resolve “to be”, surpassing the trivial desire “to have”.

The folk community will create the material and psychological conditions conducive to this quest for existential enlightenment.

(6) In the improvement of our racial quality lies our brightest future.

Man’s animal nature, implying his subordination to the laws of evolution, was the Damnable Fact of the nineteenth century, denied and cursed by the obscurantists and reactionaries of the day, whose bigoted offspring vex us still. Man’s racial nature is the Damnable Fact of the twentieth century, anathematized by a new generation of ignorance-mongers.

Unfortunately, any discussion of race quickly shifts to the “Nazi” issue and to “Nazi” atrocities, real and imagined, committed in the name of racial improvement.

The fact that National Socialists may have pursued a certain policy in the Third Reich over sixty years ago does not automatically make that policy “pro-Nazi” here and now. National Socialist Germany, for example, inaugurated certain ecological measures: does that make ecology a “Nazi” idea? Surely not. Abuses that may have been perpetrated by German Hitlerites in their eugenic program no more invalidate the concept of eugenics than the abuses of the Stalinists in their campaign at ‘building socialism’ invalidate the socialist ideal.

(We cannot discuss the “Nazi” question at length here; suffice it to say that no concept should be rejected even if it was endorsed by National Socialists – or by fascists, Marxists, anarchists, Zionists, or any other – ists. Ideas stand or fall on their own merits.)

Existentialists of the Sartre school declare that man has the freedom, nay the responsibility, to determine his own essence. If this is accepted, then none can deny the right, the duty, of a people to determine their biological essence, their racial essence.

The right of racial improvement is an integral part of the overall right to self determination – ‘rights’ which of course are never handed over, only seized and defended. Behind these rights there is no intent whatsoever to impose any eugenic program on peoples who do not want it or to victimize others in the process of implementing eugenics ourselves.

While the social environment plays an extremely important role in the development of individuals and to human betterment, no ‘system’ concocted and tinkered together by man will lead to utopia. The real road to utopia – and we realize that this road never ends – is the road leading directly to the improvement of man himself, the biological roar, built upon the bedrock reality of man’s basic physical stuff.

A people whose social order cannot meet their material and psychological needs can rectify the situation through reform or revolution; a people refusing to take their biological destiny into their own hands face a degredation from which there is no recovery.

(7) The seeking of wisdom is the highest virtue.

Western man is rightly termed “Faustian” because of his irrepressible drive to obtain knowledge. His native religious orientation has always been in the direction of knowing self, Nature and the God-Force, never towards guilt, submissiveness or heavenly rewards.

Wisdom seeking is an attribute of the High One Himself; Wotan sacrificed an eye in pursuit of sagacity. This philosophical application of ‘no pain, no gain’ has been adopted by the existentialists who have the individual confronting the brutal facts of Life in a purposeless universe.

Two types of wisdom may be discussed: external and internal.

External wisdom is that which comes from without us, from the great thinkers and sages of humanity.

Wotanists draw particular inspiration from the ancient legends, folklore, and tales of all the Indo-European peoples, with special emphasis on the Norse and other Teutonics.

Internal wisdom is that which we seek from within. It is the voice of Being, which speaks to us once we quiet the discursive mind and just listen, as the eminent masters of meditation have for so long instructed us. This leads to the most profound wisdom of all. Knowledge of the self – which is no-self!

Wisdom of all kinds is not just its own reward, it also has an evolutionary function, a survival value, enshrined in that timeless epigram “Knowledge is Power!”

(8) Love of truth, honor, courage and loyalty are the hallmarks of the noble soul.

Yesteryear’s Aryans, the “noble ones”, took these values seriously; not only a ready code of conduct for the individual, they constituted the enduring, ever-pure, ethical lifeblood of the tribe and the community generation after generation: a moral guide for this world, with no supernumerary threats of post mortem hell-fire – the stench of ignobility was considered hellish enough. The cynicism with which these values are regarded in the West today, their consignment to the status of “goody-goody” cliches, indicate the true nature of our much touted “progress”. We may be the most technologically advanced society in the world, but we are also un-mistakenly the most backward ethically. It could hardly be otherwise in the wake of centuries of moral confusion spawned by the “religion of love” imposed upon us through fear and guilt. Modern secular society’s ethos of egoism is merely the backlash corollary to Christianity’s neurosis-inducing slave morality.

History doesn’t stand still; in moving on it will sweep away the false standards which at present seem so immutable. The values of Blood, as Oswald Spengler has predicted based on his panoramic surveys of the past, will inexorably banish the non-values of Money. Our task is to ensure that that Blood is Aryan.

To that end we proudly embrace those ‘antiquated’ ideals of our forefathers:

Love of truth – to joyously gaze upon the naked face of Being and spurn all comforting delusions.

Honor – the virtue of virtues: self-respect and righteous conduct under all circumstances, come what may.

Courage – to face all tasks, challenges and dangers fearlessly.

Loyalty – unyielding dedication to every pledge of fidelity.

Paul Tillich, a German-born student of Heidegger and a religious existentialist, reminds us that, as our lives are spun out of the tension between being and non-being, there can never be absolute security; to genuinely live, or live authentically, takes guts – what Tillich calls “the courage to be”.

Our Norse ancestors took this gutsy approach to life under conditions a great deal more precarious than what most of us face now. May we be worthy to carry on their legacy!

(9) Our imperative is to strive constantly to expand our powers of body, mind and spirit.

Colin Wilson, a British writer who has dealt extensively with existentialist topics, has observed that the one clear tendency in the universe even remotely indicative of any sort of discernible ‘purpose’ is the trend toward greater and greater complexity. Science from simple hydrogen to intelligent beings which may be regarded as the universe becoming conscious of itself. Wilson suggests that control of evolution may be a viable goal for humanity, instilling a sense of purpose counteractive to our ongoing drift into alienation and nihilism.

Such a project is consistent with Euro-man’s Faustian will, and has been most dramatically enunciated by one of our mightiest philosophers, the incomparable Nietzsche, who summed up this aspiration with the words, “Man is something which must be surpassed”. Nietzsche’s instruction has always occupied a special niche in the paradigm of modern Wotanism.

Our ability to influence our race’s evolution is obviously questionable at best at this juncture, limited to responsible reproduction; the larger task awaits the flowering of our folk communities. We do have a bit more control over what might be called our ‘personal evolution’, however.

The more we can augment the physical and mental constituents of our individual being, the better will we be able to fully experience our in-dwelling with Being, and thereby enrich our spiritual life. And the more we improve ourselves individually, holistically, the more will we empower the Folk collectively.

These brief comments are hardly a drop in the ocean of possibilities churned up by the convergence of Wotanism and existentialism.

We readily concede in addition that the Nine Principles listed here do not represent any sort of final statement for Wotanism – much less some kind of dogma we would insist be binding on any and all who would pay homage to the High One. They do offer one path for making the Norse religion a vibrant, relevant force, an existential point of reference, for latter-day Aryans.

If Wotan, as previously mentioned, is the Existential God, then Wotanism must be the Existential Religion. And existentialists, for all their differences, seem to agree on one crucial point: you are what you do. Beliefs can be verbally professed long and loud, but beliefs not put into action are empty and lifeless. He who believes without ‘putting creed into deed’ degrades himself and his doctrine.

Whether Wotanism thrives or fades into obscurity depends upon whether or not it is truly lived. Wotanism, like Hinduism, is dynamic and variegated, capable of many formulations; nevertheless, there is a basic set of truths and values which must be incorporated into a consistent lifestyle if Wotanism is to be anything more than a pretense.

As we have hopefully learned by now, there are no guarantees. The fate of the religion of Wotan is in great measure in the hands of those who would call themselves Wotanists: it will become what they make it.

Being a Wotanist in the 20th century is no easy matter. Numerous forces and factors militate against us. Many if not most of us, despite the exhortations here, cannot or will not assert the entirety of our religious convictions, and must bear the anguish of living with one foot in an alien society and the other wrapped in the good intentions of claimed belief. It’s wisdom for the pain, though, because, just as the existentialists tell us, that anguish can be the beginning, the actual motivation, for breaking through all in-authenticity in a genuine thrust for liberation.

Through it all, that flame in our soul always to be kept alight is the fire of spiritual deity-defying daring by our Norse precursors, who had the audacity to voice their distrust of Wotan himself (in the finest existentialist temper!): it has forever been behind the questing, questioning and skepticism that has catapulted our race into world-historical eminence.

Nietzsche called the fighters for spiritual freedom “Hyperboreans. Living amidst the ice and the mountain heights” – how fitting for Folk of the North!

Heidegger’s declaration in this regard will, we hope, always be council for Wotanists:

“A faith that does not perpetually expose itself to the possibility of unfaith is no faith but merely convenience.”

Dr. Carl Gustav Jung: The Wotan Essay


by Dr. C.G. Jung

En Germanie naistront diverses sectes,
S’approchans fort de l’heureux paganisme:
Le coeur captif et petites receptes
Feront retour a payer la vraye disme.

[In Germany Shall diverse sects arise,
Coming very near to happy paganism.
The heart captivated and small receivings
Shall open the gate to pay the true tithe.]

—Propheties De Maistre Michel Nostradamus, 1555

When we look back to the time before 1914, we find ourselves living in a world of events which would have been inconceivable before the war. We were even beginning to regard war between civilized nations as a fable, thinking that such an absurdity would become less and less possible on our rational, internationally organized world. And what came after the war was a veritable witches’ sabbath. Everywhere fantastic revolutions, violent alterations of the map, reversions in politics to medieval or even antique prototypes, totalitarian states that engulf their neighbours and outdo all previous theocracies in their absolutist claims, persecutions of Christians and Jews, wholesale political murder, and finally we have witnessed a light-hearted piratical raid on a peaceful, half-civilized people.

With such goings on in the wide world it is not in the least surprising that there should be equally curious manifestations on a smaller scale in other spheres. In the realm of philosophy we shall have to wait some time before anyone is able to assess the kind of age we are living in. But in the sphere of religion we can see at once that some very significant things have been happening. We need feel no surprise that in Russia the colourful splendours of the Eastern Orthodox Church have been superseded by the Movement of the Godless – indeed, one breathed a sigh of relief oneself when one emerged from the haze of an Orthodox church with its multitude of lamps and entered an honest mosque, where the sublime and invisible omnipresence of God was not crowded out by a superfluity of sacred paraphernalia. Tasteless and pitiably unintelligent as it is, and however deplorable the low spiritual level of the “scientific” reaction, it was inevitable that nineteenth-century “scientific” enlightenment should one day dawn in Russia.

But what is more than curious – indeed, piquant to a degree – is that an ancient god of storm and frenzy, the long quiescent Wotan, should awake, like an extinct volcano, to new activity, in a civilized country that had long been supposed to have outgrown the Middle Ages. We have seen him come to life in the German Youth Movement, and right at the beginning the blood of several sheep was shed in honour of his resurrection. Armed with rucksack and lute, blond youths, and sometimes girls as well, were to be seen as restless wanderers on every road from the North Cape to Sicily, faithful votaries of the roving god. Later, towards the end of the Weimar Republic, the wandering role was taken over by thousands of unemployed, who were to be met with everywhere on their aimless journeys. By 1933 they wandered no longer, but marched in their hundreds of thousands. The Hitler movement literally brought the whole of Germany to its feet, from five-year-olds to veterans, and produced a spectacle of a nation migrating from one place to another. Wotan the wanderer was on the move. He could be seen, looking rather shamefaced, in the meeting-house of a sect of simple folk in North Germany, disguised as Christ sitting on a white horse. I do not know if these people were aware of Wotan’s ancient connection with the figures of Christ and Dionysus, but it is not very probable.

Wotan is a restless wanderer who creates unrest and stirs up strife, now here, now there, and works magic. He was soon changed by Christianity into the devil, and only lived on in fading local traditions as a ghostly hunter who was seen with his retinue, flickering like a will o’ the wisp through the stormy night. In the Middle Ages the role of the restless wanderer was taken over by Ahasuerus, the Wandering Jew, which is not a Jewish but a Christian legend. The motif of the wanderer who has not accepted Christ was projected on the Jews, in the same way as we always rediscover our unconscious psychic contents in other people. At any rate the coincidence of anti-Semitism with the reawakening of Wotan is a psychological subtlety that may perhaps be worth mentioning.

The German youths who celebrated the solstice with sheep-sacrifices were not the first to hear the rustling in the primeval forest of the unconsciousness. They were anticipated by Nietzsche, Schuler, Stefan George, and Ludwig Klages. The literary tradition of the Rhineland and the country south of the Main has a classical stamp that cannot easily be got rid of; every interpretation of intoxication and exuberance is apt to be taken back to classical models, to Dionysus, to the puer aeternus and the cosmogonic Eros. No doubt it sounds better to academic ears to interpret these things as Dionysus, but Wotan might be a more correct interpretation. He is the god of storm and frenzy, the unleasher of passions and the lust of battle; moreover he is a superlative magician and artist in illusion who is versed in all secrets of an occult nature.

Nietzsche’s case is certainly a peculiar one. He had no knowledge of Germanic literature; he discovered the “cultural Philistine”; and the announcement that “God is dead” led to Zarathustra’s meeting with an unknown god in unexpected form, who approached him sometimes as an enemy and sometimes disguised as Zarathustra himself. Zarathustra, too, was a soothsayer, a magician, and the storm-wind:

And like a wind shall I come to blow among them, and with my spirit shall take away the breath of their spirit; thus my future will sit. Truly, a strong wind is Zarathustra to all that are low; and this counsel gives he to his enemies and to all that spit and spew: “Beware of spitting against the wind.”

And when Zarathustra dreamed that he was guardian of the graves in the “lone mountain fortress of death,” and was making amighty effort to open the gates, suddenly

A roaring wind tore the gates asunder; whistling, shrieking, and keening, it cast a black coffin before me. And amid the roaring and whistling and shrieking the coffin burst open and spouted a thousand peals of laughter.

The disciple who interpreted the dream said to Zarathustra:

Are you not yourself the wind with shrill whistling, which bursts open the gates of the fortress of death? Are you not yourself the coffin filled with life’s gay malice and angel-grimaces?

In 1863 or 1864, in his poem To the Unknown God, Nietzsche had written:

 I shall and will know thee, Unknown One,
Who searchest out the depths of my soul,
And blowest through my life like a storm,
Ungraspable, and yet my kinsman!
I shall and will know thee, and serve thee.

Twenty years later, in his Mistral Song, he wrote:

Mistral wind, chaser of clouds,
Killer of gloom, sweeper of the skies,
Raging storm-wind, how I love thee!
And we are not both the first-fruits
Of the same womb, forever predestined
To the same fate?

In the dithyramb known as Ariadne’s Lament, Nietzsche is completely the victim of the hunter-god:

Stretched out, shuddering,
Like a half-dead thing whose feet are warmed,
Shaken by unknown fevers,
Shivering with piercing icy frost arrows,
Hunted by thee, O thought,
Unutterable! Veiled! horrible one!
Thou huntsman behind the cloud.
Struck down by thy lightning bolt,
Thou mocking eye that stares at me from the dark!
Thus I lie.
Writhing, twisting, tormented
With all eternal tortures,
By thee, cruel huntsman,
Thou unknown — God!

This remarkable image of the hunter-god is not a mere dithyrambic figure of speech but is based on an experience which Nietzsche had when he was fifteen years old, at Pforta. It is described in a book by Nietzsche’s sister, Elizabeth Foerster-Nietzsche. As he was wandering about in a gloomy wood at night, he was terrified by a “blood-curdling shriek from a neighbouring lunatic asylum,” and soon afterwards he came face to face with a huntsman whose “features were wild and uncanny. “Setting his whistle to his lips “in a valley surrounded by wild scrub,” the huntsman “blew such a shrill blast” that Nietzsche lost consciousness – but woke up again in Pforta. It was a nightmare. It is significant that in his dream Nietzsche, who in reality intended to go to Eisleben, Luther’s town, discussed with the huntsman the question of going instead to “Teutschenthal” (Valley of the Germans). No one with ears can misunderstand the shrill whistling of the storm-god in the nocturnal wood.

Was it really only the classical philologist in Nietzsche that led to the god being called Dionysus instead of Wotan – or was it perhaps due to his fateful meeting with Wagner?

In his Reich ohne Raum, which was first published in 1919, Bruno Goetz saw the secret of coming events in Germany in the form of a very strange vision. I have never forgotten this little book, for it struck meat the time as a forecast of the German weather. It anticipates the conflict between the realm of ideas and life, between Wotan’s dual nature as a god of storm and a god of secret musings. Wotan disappeared when his oaks fell and appeared again when the Christian God proved too weak to save Christendom from fratricidal slaughter. When the Holy Father at Rome could only impotently lament before God the fate of the grex segregatus, the one-eyed old hunter, on the edge of the German forest, laughed and saddled Sleipnir.

We are always convinced that the modern world is a reasonable world, basing our opinion on economic, political, and psychological factors. But if we may forget for a moment that we are living in the year of Our Lord 1936, and, laying aside our well-meaning, all-too-human reasonableness, may burden God or the gods with the responsibility for contemporary events instead of man, we would find Wotan quite suitable as a casual hypothesis. In fact, I venture the heretical suggestion that the unfathomable depths of Wotan’s character explain more of National Socialism than all three reasonable factors put together. There is no doubt that each of these factors explains an important aspect of what is going on in Germany, but Wotan explains yet more. He is particularly enlightening in regard to a general phenomenon which is so strange to anybody not a German that it remains incomprehensible, even after the deepest reflection.

Perhaps we may sum up this general phenomenon as Ergriffenheit a state of being seized or possessed. The term postulates not only an Ergriffener (one who is seized) but, also, an Ergreifer (one who seizes). Wotan is an Ergreifer of men, and, unless one wishes to deify Hitler – which has indeed actually happened he is really the only explanation. It is true that Wotan shares this quality with his cousin Dionysus, but Dionysus seems to have exercised his influence mainly on women. The maenads were a species of female storm-troopers, and, according to mythical reports, were dangerous enough. Wotan confined himself to the berserkers, who found their vocation as the Blackshirts of mythical kings.

A mind that is still childish thinks of the gods as metaphysical entities existing in their own right, or else regards them as playful or superstitious inventions. From either point of view the parallel between Wotan redivivus and the social, political and psychic storm that is shaking Germany might have at least the value of a parable. But since the gods are without doubt personifications of psychic forces, to assert their metaphysical existence is as much an intellectual presumption as the opinion that they could ever be invented. Not that “psychic forces” have anything to do with the conscious mind, fond as we are of playing with the idea that consciousness and psyche are identical. This is only another piece of intellectual presumption. “Psychic forces” have far more to do with the realm of the unconscious. Our mania for rational explanations obviously has its roots in our fear of metaphysics, for the two were always hostile brothers. Hence, anything unexpected that approaches us from the dark realm is regarded either as coming from outside and, therefore, as real, or else as an hallucination and, therefore, not true. The idea that anything could be real or true which does not come from outside has hardly begun to dawn on contemporary man.

For the sake of better understanding and to avoid prejudice, we could of course dispense with the name “Wotan” and speak instead of the Furor Teutonicus. But we should only be saying the same thing and not as well, for the furor in this case is a mere psychologizing of Wotan and tells us no more than that the Germans are in a state of “fury.” We thus lose sight of the most peculiar feature of this whole phenomenon, namely, the dramatic aspect of the Ergreifer and the Ergriffener. The impressive thing about the German phenomenon is that one man, who is obviously “possessed,” has infected a whole nation to such an extent that everything is set in motion and has started rolling on its course towards perdition.

It seems to me that Wotan hits the mark as an hypothesis. Apparently he really was only asleep in the Kyffhauser mountain until the ravens called him and announced the break of day. He is a fundamental attribute of the German psyche, an irrational psychic factor which acts on the high pressure of civilization like a cyclone and blows it away. Despite their crankiness, the Wotan-worshippers seem to have judged things more correctly than the worshippers of reason. Apparently everyone had forgotten that Wotan is a Germanic datum of first importance, the truest expression and unsurpassed personification of a fundamental quality that is particularly characteristic of the Germans. Houston Stewart Chamberlain is a symptom which arouses suspicion that other veiled gods may be sleeping elsewhere. The emphasis on the Germanic race – commonly called “Aryan” – the Germanic heritage, blood and soil, the Wagalaweia songs, the ride of the Valkyries, Jesus as a blond and blue-eyed hero, the Greek mother of St Paul, the devil as an international Alberich in Jewish or Masonic guise, the Nordic aurora borealis as the light of civilization, the inferior Mediterranean races – all this is the indispensable scenery for the drama that is taking place and at the bottom they all mean the same thing: a god has taken possession of the Germans and their house is filled with a “mighty rushing wind.” It was soon after Hitler seized power, if I am not mistaken, that a cartoon appeared in Punch of a raving berserker tearing himself free from his bonds. A hurricane has broken loose in Germany while we still believe it is fine weather.

Things are comparatively quiet in Switzerland, though occasionally there is a puff of wind from the north or south. Sometimes it has a slightly ominous sound, sometimes it whispers so harmlessly or even idealistically that no one is alarmed. “Let the sleeping dogs lie” – we manage to get along pretty well with this proverbial wisdom. It is sometimes said that the Swiss are singularly averse to making a problem of themselves. I must rebut this accusation: the Swiss do have their problems, but they would not admit it for anything in the world, even though they see which way the wind is blowing. We thus pay our tribute to the time of storm and stress in Germany, but we never mention it, and this enables us to feel vastly superior.

It is above all the Germans who have an opportunity, perhaps unique in history, to look into their own hearts and to learn what those perils of the soul were from which Christianity tried to rescue mankind. Germany is a land of spiritual catastrophes, where nature never makes more than a pretense of peace with the world-ruling reason. The disturber of the peace is a wind that blows into Europe from Asia’s vastness, sweeping in on a wide front from Thrace to the Baltic, scattering the nations before it like dry leaves, or inspiring thoughts that shake the world to its foundations. It is an elemental Dionysus breaking into the Apollonian order. The rouser of this tempest is named Wotan, and we can learn a good deal about him from the political confusion and spiritual upheaval he has caused throughout history. For a more exact investigation of his character, however, we must go back to the age of myths, which did not explain everything in terms of man and his limited capacities, but sought the deeper cause in the psyche and its autonomous powers. Man’s earliest intuitions personified these powers as gods, and described them in the myths with great care and circumstantiality according to their various characters. This could be done the more readily on account of the firmly established primordial types or images which are innate in the unconscious of many races and exercise a direct influence upon them. Because the behavior of a race takes on its specific character from its underlying images, we can speak of an archetype “Wotan.” As an autonomous psychic factor, Wotan produces effects in the collective life of a people and thereby reveals his own nature. For Wotan has a peculiar biology of his own, quite apart from the nature of man. It is only from time to time that individuals fall under the irresistible influence of this unconscious factor. When it is quiescent, one is no more aware of the archetype Wotan than of a latent epilepsy. Could the Germans who were adults in 1914 have foreseen what they would be today? Such amazing transformations are the effect of the god of wind, that “bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, nor whither it goeth.” It seizes everything in its path and overthrows everything that is not firmly rooted. When the wind blows it shakes everything that is insecure, whether without or within.

Martin Ninck has recently published a monograph which is a most welcome addition to our knowledge of Wotan’s nature. The reader need not fear that this book is nothing but a scientific study written with academic aloofness from the subject. Certainly the right to scientific objectivity is fully preserved, and the material has been collected with extraordinary thoroughness and presented in unusually clear form. But, over and above all this, one feels that the author is vitally interested in it, that the chord of Wotan is vibrating in him, too. This is no criticism – on the contrary, it is one of the chief merits of the book, which without this enthusiasm might easily have degenerated into a tedious catalogue. Ninck sketches a really magnificent portrait of the German archetype Wotan. He describes him in ten chapters, using all the available sources, as the berserker, the god of storm, the wanderer, the warrior, the Wunsch- and Minne-god, the lord of the dead and of the Einherjar, the master of secret knowledge, the magician, and the god of the poets. Neither the Valkyries nor the Fylgja are forgotten, for they form part of the mythological background and fateful significance of Wotan. Ninck’s inquiry into the name and its origin is particularly instructive. He shows that Wotan is not only a god of rage and frenzy who embodies the instinctual and emotion aspect of the unconscious. Its intuitive and inspiring side, also, manifests itself in him, for he understands the runes and can interpret fate.

The Romans identified Wotan with Mercury, but his character does not really correspond to any Roman or Greek god, although there are certain resemblances. He is a wanderer like Mercury, for instance, he rules over the dead like Pluto and Kronos, and is connected with Dionysus by his emotional frenzy, particularly in its mantic aspect. It is surprising that Ninck does not mention Hermes, the god of revelation, who as pneuma and nous is associated with the wind. He would be the connecting-link with the Christian pneuma and the miracle of Pentecost. As Poimandres (the shepherd of men), Hermes is an Ergreifer like Wotan. Ninck rightly points out that Dionysus and the other Greek gods always remained under the supreme authority of Zeus, which indicates a fundamental difference between the Greek and the Germanic temperament. Ninck assumes an inner affinity between Wotan and Kronus, and the latter’s defeat may perhaps be a sign that the Wotan-archetype was once overcome and split up in prehistoric times. At all events, the Germanic god represents a totality on a very primitive level, a psychological condition in which man’s will was almost identical with the god’s and entirely at his mercy. But the Greeks had gods who helped man against other gods; indeed, All-Father Zeus himself is not far from the ideal of a benevolent, enlightened despot.

It was not in Wotan’s nature to linger on and show signs of old age. He simply disappeared when the times turned against him, and remained invisible for more than a thousand years, working anonymously and indirectly. Archetypes are like riverbeds which dry up when the water deserts them, but which it can find again at any time. An archetype is like an old watercourse along which the water of life has flowed for centuries, digging a deep channel for itself. The longer it has flowed in this channel the more likely it is that sooner or later the water will return to its old bed. The life of the individual as a member of society and particularly as a part of the State may be regulated like a canal, but the life of nations is a great rushing river which is utterly beyond human control, in the hands of One who has always been stronger than men. The League of Nations, which was supposed to possess supranational authority, is regarded by some as a child in need of care and protection, by others as an abortion. Thus, the life of nations rolls on unchecked, without guidance, unconscious of where it is going, like a rock crashing down the side of a hill, until it is stopped by an obstacle stronger than itself. Political events move from one impasse to the next, like a torrent caught in gullies, creeks and marshes. All human control comes to an end when the individual is caught in a mass movement. Then, the archetypes begin to function, as happens, also, in the lives of individuals when they are confronted with situations that cannot be dealt with in any of the familiar ways. But what a so-called Fuhrer does with a mass movement can plainly be seen if we turn our eyes to the north or south of our country.

The ruling archetype does not remain the same forever, as is evident from the temporal limitations that have been set to the hoped-for reign of peace, the “thousand-year Reich.” The Mediterranean father-archetype of the just, order-loving, benevolent ruler had been shattered over the whole of northern Europe, as the present fate of the Christian Churches bears witness. Fascism in Italy and the civil war in Spain show that in the south as well the cataclysm has been far greater than one expected. Even the Catholic Church can no longer afford trials of strength.

The nationalist God has attacked Christianity on a broad front. In Russia, he is called technology and science, in Italy, Duce, and in Germany, “German Faith,” “German Christianity,” or the State. The “German Christians” are a contradiction in terms and would do better to join Hauer’s “German Faith Movement.” These are decent and well-meaning people who honestly admit their Ergriffenheit and try to come to terms with this new and undeniable fact. They go to an enormous amount of trouble to make it look less alarming by dressing it up in a conciliatory historical garb and giving us consoling glimpses of great figures such as Meister Eckhart, who was, also, a German and, also, ergriffen. In this way the awkward question of who the Ergreifer is is circumvented. He was always “God.” But the more Hauer restricts the world-wide sphere of Indo-European culture to the “Nordic” in general and to the Edda in particular, and the more “German” this faith becomes as a manifestation of Ergriffenheit, the more painfully evident it is that the “German” god is the god of the Germans.

One cannot read Hauer’s book without emotion, if one regards it as the tragic and really heroic effort of a conscientious scholar who, without knowing how it happened to him, was violently summoned by the inaudible voice of the Ergreifer and is now trying with all his might, and with all his knowledge and ability, to build a bridge between the dark forces of life and the shining world of historical ideas. But what do all the beauties of the past from totally different levels of culture mean to the man of today, when confronted with a living and unfathomable tribal god such as he has never experienced before? They are sucked like dry leaves into the roaring whirlwind, and the rhythmic alliterations of the Edda became inextricably mixed up with Christian mystical texts, German poetry and the wisdom of the Upanishads. Hauer himself is ergriffen by the depths of meaning in the primal words lying at the root of the Germanic languages, to an extent that he certainly never knew before. Hauer the Indologist is not to blame for this, nor yet the Edda; it is rather the fault of kairos – the present moment in time – whose name on closer investigation turns out to be Wotan. I would, therefore, advise the German Faith Movement to throw aside their scruples. Intelligent people will not confuse them with the crude Wotan-worshippers whose faith is a mere pretense. There are people in the German Faith Movement who are intelligent enough not only to believe, but to know, that the god of the Germans is Wotan and not the Christian God. This is a tragic experience and no disgrace. It has always been terrible to fall into the hands of a living god. Yahweh was no exception to this rule, and the Philistines, Edomites, Amorites and the rest, who were outside the Yahweh experience, must certainly have found it exceedingly disagreeable. The Semitic experience of Allah was for a long time an extremely painful affair for the whole of Christendom. We who stand outside judge the Germans far too much, as if they were responsible agents, but perhaps it would be nearer the truth to regard them, also, as victims.

If we apply are admittedly peculiar point of view consistently, we are driven to conclude that Wotan must, in time, reveal not only the restless, violent, stormy side of his character, but, also, his ecstatic and mantic qualities – a very different aspect of his nature. If this conclusion is correct, National Socialism would not be the last word. Things must be concealed in the background which we cannot imagine at present, but we may expect them to appear in the course of the next few years or decades. Wotan’s reawakening is a stepping back into the past; the stream was damned up and has broken into its old channel. But the obstruction will not last forever; it is rather a reculer pour mieux sauter, and the water will overleap the obstacle. Then, at last, we shall know what Wotan is saying when he “murmers with Mimir’s head.”

Fast move the sons of Mim, and fate
Is heard in the note of the Gjallarhorn;
Loud blows Heimdall, the horn is aloft,
In fear quake all who on Hel-roads are.
Yggdrasill shakes and shivers on high
The ancient limbs, and the giant is loose;
Wotan murmurs with Mimir’s head
But the kinsman of Surt shall slay him soon.

How fare the gods? how fare the elves?
All Jotunheim groans, the gods are at council;
Loud roar the dwarfs by the doors of stone,
The masters of the rocks: would you know yet more?

Now Garm howls loud before Gnipahellir;
The fetters will burst, and the wolf run free;
Much I do know, and more can see
Of the fate of the gods, the mighty in fight.

From the east comes Hrym with shield held high;
In giant-wrath does the serpent writhe;
O’er the waves he twists, and the tawny eagle
Gnaws corpses screaming; Naglfar is loose.

O’er the sea from the north there sails a ship
With the people of Hel, at the helm stands Loki;
After the wolf do wild men follow,
And with them the brother of Byleist goes.

First published as WOTAN, Neue Schweizer Rundschau (Zurich). n.s., III

(March, 1936), 657-69. Republished in AUFSATZE ZUR ZEITGESCHICHTE
(Zurich, 1946), 1-23. Trans. by Barbara Hannah in ESSAYS ON CONTEMPORARY
EVENTS (London, 1947), 1-16; this version has been consulted.

Motto, trans. by Hv. Roberts:

“In Germany Shall diverse sects arise,
Coming very near to happy paganism.
The heart captivated and small receivings
Shall open the gate to pay the true tithe.”

Miguel Serrano’s Disenchantment with Dr. Carl Jung

“Jung helped us to understand and penetrate the Mystery. And he has been the only one in our time who has referred to Hitler in this way, even though, after the war that he also lost, he wanted to unsay it, to forget what he had said with contradictory unhappy declarations. Silence would have been better.” –Miguel Serrano’s Adolf Hitler: The Ultimate Avatar, from the section titled “The Lord of Darkness”

“When I lived in Switzerland I published there the list of the most important Swiss Masons. And Professor Jung appeared in it. I was never permitted to enter into the sancta sanctorum of his Tower of Bollingen, a small room where he withdrew into solitude. He had it decorated with symbols with which I could not have been familiar. Goethe was also a Mason, which was for Jung a ‘family tradition.’ With the best of intentions on his part, his descriptions and interpretations would be ‘inspired’ by enemy forces of that superior Being he analysed.” –Adolf Hitler: The Ultimate Avatar, from the section titled “The Maestro”

“In the same interview we have reproduced Jung refers to Hitler as the prisoner of Wotan, God of storm and hurricane and the Swastika, like some vortex of irresistible energy. Wotan, God of the wind. Therefore the Assault Troops of Nazism were called Sturmabteilung, storm troops, the hurricane.

The military campaigns of Hitler all have the same archetype: a hurricane, a storm. He was the creator of Blitzkreig, the lightning war. It could equally be called ‘Wotan’s War.’ It has been claimed that the English, familiar with the interviews of Jung published before the war, had asked him his opinion about the conduct of the conflict. Jung had advised them to prolong it as much as possible, since Hitler could only win a short ‘hurricane’ war. A hurricane does not prolong itself indefinitely and the God of War, Wotan, is the God of the Hurricane, of the Wind.” –Adolf Hitler: The Ultimate Avatar, from the section titled “The Maestro”

“It is incredible that researchers like Professor CG Jung and others, who could not have overlooked these things, have also been influenced by the Judeo-Christian tradition, by the pietism of their families and communities, to the extent of having to travel to Black Africa and the America of the Indian Peoples to study lunar and solar cults, when everything was there at hand in their own ethnographic territories. But they also went to take their places in the ranks of the Great Conspiracy against their Nordic ancestors, to make them appear like savages and barbarians. That is why they turned against Hitler at the end, committing themselves to the White Treason.” –Adolf Hitler: The Ultimate Avatar, from the section titled “Castle of the Order”

“In a list of Masons, published during my stay in Switzerland, there appeared the name of C. G. Jung. This would explain his contradictions in the analysis he made of the personality of Adolf Hitler and the German soul, including what he called the Aryan ‘Collective Unconscious.’” –Miguel Serrano’s Manu: For the Man to Come, from the section titled “Magic Flute”

“Besides the important and transcendental interviews and statements of C.G. Jung before the Second World War, there has recently come into my hands, sent straight from Germany, another that was unfortunately unknown to me that he gave in Switzerland once the War was over. After reading it I am left surprised.

I know what Jung has meant for me, for almost all my life. Even now I quote him repeatedly. In my book The Hermetic Circle which has had such resonance, having been translated and edited even into Japanese, Persian and Greek, I published my conversations with him and with Hermann Hesse. Moreover Jung prefaced my book The Visits of the Queen of Sheba where he can say I must have written it for him. He had never before written a foreword to a purely poetic and literary work, having limited himself to books like the I-Ching and The Book of the Dead from Tibet, and a few others like those. In the prologue to my book he makes revealing statements about himself, the Archetypes and the Unconscious. Toward the end of his days Jung also sent me a handwritten letter that is his ideological statement, so to speak.

With what great veneration, dedication and loyalty I have remained with him during all these long years, spreading his thought, interpreting it, taking it away from the pure psychologism where it had remained due to the necessity of the times and trying to lift it onto the pedestal that Meister Eckhart had occupied. In fact he helped me enormously by providing the terms of rational discursive language needed to achieve credibility in a world filled with prejudice, because that world only respects and understands those who wrap themselves in the guise of so-called ‘science.’ I used those terms, knowing they were often not exact and would, after that time, ultimately harm what was intended to be expressed. But I was also helping him, lifting him up to the highest seat of great poetry, the Cosmic Poetry of the Gods which he called ‘Archetypes.’

‘Psychoanalysis’ with ‘economics’ form two ‘sciences’ of Jewish origin invented by the Jew. Like everything coming from him they are no more than a weapon used in his war against the non-Jews, the goyim. When a non-Jew makes use of those weapons he has fallen into a trap, falling captive into his service. Perhaps Jung knew it and tried to free himself when he made his break with Freud, something that had an indisputably anti-Jewish character even though he denied it. That is why he invented his ‘Two Collective Unconsciousnesses,’ Aryan and Jew. After the Second World War that theory has since disappeared completely from the works of Jung, almost certainly because he himself took part in this self-mutilation. At that same time he agreed to take a Jewish secretary who carried on his correspondence and pushed him to write his posthumous autobiographical work. A very able and intelligent woman, in whose hands he was in his later years.

The declarations about Hitler in the interviews we have quoted were made by Jung, the same as his idea of the ‘Two Collective Unconsciousnesses,’ when the Führer was at the peak of his career and when it was believed he would win any conflict. Aniele Jaffe, his secretary whom he enriched by giving her the rights to his posthumous works, criticized him after his death ‘for not having been honest with the Jews by taking that position when they found themselves in an extremely critical position.’

Now, if Jung may have acted like that at some time, he came to repeat the same thing against the Germans after the loss of the War by the Third Reich. And also in their most critical hour.

Better than anyone I know the sorrow and pain it causes me to have to write this. But the statements of Jung in the interview published after the defeat of Germany are of such magnitude that the admiration and veneration I have harbored for him for a lifetime have crumbled at one blow, leaving me deceived.

Jung claims to charge Germany with a ‘Collective Karma’ for the ‘diabolical crimes’ she committed by following Hitler and National Socialism, being ‘possessed by the Collective Unconscious’ that would be criminal according to her actions. He declared that only Germany had been capable of committing such monstrosities because they are a gregarious people, indiscriminate, incapable of making individual decisions, apt to be drawn into any situation by a guide that embodied their demonic and criminal collective soul. ‘That could never happen with England nor with Switzerland, for example, individualist and intelligent peoples.’ Germany is the eternal adolescent who must be controlled by sane adults. She has no choice but to accept her universal guilt, accusing herself and recognizing her ‘sin’ and begging pardon from the entire world until the end of time. Moreover she must convert to Catholicism…

What Jung says in that interview is exactly what Germany has come to do during the forty years that have passed since the end of the Second World War, as if those who have imposed this terrible penance on her, who have destroyed her soul, were inspired by the recommendations of Jung.

Shortly before the end of the Second Great War it is also said that Jung recommended to Allied intelligence, especially the English, that they prolong the conflict for as long as possible because Hitler, inventor of Blitzkrieg, ‘lightning war,’ ‘was possessed by Wotan, God of the Hurricane,’ according to him. ‘And the hurricane cannot blow forever.’ He was like a lightning bolt, of short duration.

The same cunning that Jung put into his critique of Freud and the Jews, in moments tragic for them according to the reference of Aniela Jaffe, and into the idea of the Two Collective Unconsciousnesses with which he gave a most powerful weapon to the National Socialists in their effort to differentiate essentially between the Aryan race and the Jewish anti-race, he then put into the service of the Jews with his invention of ‘Collective Karma’ and the ‘eternal penance’ of an entire people, an entire race, which was his own and that ‘had no choice’ through all eternity until its just annihilation. In both cases the attitude was deeply ignoble and now had to be interpreted as the possession of an Aryan by the diabolism of the Jewish Mosaic spirit, as well as by the basic Jewish mentality of psychoanalysis. Together with the animal terror produced in him by the defeat in War of the Third Reich, fear of losing everything after having pretended to be ‘complicit’ in its moment of triumph.

In the interests of truth we must state that Hitlerists made no use whatsoever of the theory of the Two Collective Unconsciousnesses since they kept an attitude of reserve towards everything that came from psychoanalysis. Learning about the last interview of Carl Gustav Jung gave me the suspicion that the Jews, who are not creators, have used his statements when applying their strategy of pressuring and ‘brain washing’ the Germans, against whom that strategy has been engraved into their souls, minds and even their bones, the feeling of guilt and sin of deicide of the ‘chosen people’ with the invention of the ‘genocide of the six million in the holocaust,’ in gas chambers and all those ‘horrendous crimes’ that only exist in the sick and morbid minds of the Jews. And Jung led them in that direction as the facilitator of their strategy and plan.

I repeat: I was surprised. I never could have imagined. How can a man who was able to understand and had in his possession like no one else, in other times, the unfathomable mystery of the Führer, have made those terrible statements in the interview that I now have in my care? Everything seems so false and exaggerated! He did not need to try to be an unconditional partisan of a cause or an interpretation, however genial it might be. All that was required was to be detached and serene. Heidegger, who Jung hated beyond measure, never denied having backed Hitler, having the valour and integrity to remain dedicated to the work and mission of his life. Jung had to remain silent: He who had compared Hitler to Mohammed!

Jung made the statement that the Germans are gregarious and blindly follow the dictates of their Collective Unconscious, while the Swiss and English are not like that since they are individualists, yet the statement is false. Nicolás Palacio, our brilliant thinker, tells us the Germans: “voluntarily surrender their liberty to a Leader (Führer) in moments of grave crisis to follow the fulfillment of Destiny with loyalty and discipline.” Because the people with race can only hear the Voice in magic re-union, in the community of their blood. In Luminous Blood Memory they transfigure the world and transmute the animal-man into Divine-Man. Jung would say the same: “The homo terrenus into homo de coelo.” Germany demonstrated this during the War (as well as the Japanese). But their scholars have been unable to reproduce this outside of Germany, precisely for the lack of existence of a community of divine blood. Werner von Braun is one to prove this, since in the United States he could not go beyond the explosive science of projectiles with jet propulsion when his Hitlerist compatriots in the Third Reich had already rediscovered implosive science, the UFO or Vimana.

The English have no racial homogeneity, thoroughly penetrated by the Jew, even in their royal family. The Swiss are not a race, divided into cantons of opposed backgrounds. Perhaps if the German cantons had been included in the torrent of the German Psychic Blood Memory, then Jung would have been able to show the same with his attitude before the war defeat. And what he, even he, lost thereby he might have come to appreciate fully: the liberation from Jewish psychoanalysis that Hitlerism offered and the overflowing or projection of his theory of the Two Collective Unconsciousnesses by the doctrine of ‘Blood Memory’ and the Tibetan idea of the Tulkus. Perhaps he suspected it since Jung suffered two heart attacks after the War. He would have trembled at the thought of Jewish persecution knowing their power quite well after his break with Freud. And it is no coincidence moreover that his secretary belonged to that people. He wanted to save his life’s work. But I insist it was not necessary to do what he did. He lacked courage, or perhaps he was a skeptic…

I do not know, I do not know… So very big a blow to see how so venerated a being plunges from the mountaintop, where we had put him. Hermann Hesse also thought Jung was a mountain…

On my last visit to Jung’s Tower in Bollingen, the sanctuary he built as a symbol of his conception of life, with his theories about Individuation, the Selbst, wanting to know the sanctum sanctorum, the separate room where he meditated among walls covered with symbols painted by his own hand. His grandson, also a psychoanalyst, would not let me enter.

Perhaps it was Jung’s desire not to authorize my entry so no one would discover his true affiliation. In Switzerland it was understood that Jung belonged to the Freemasons.

Thus, he was also a ‘White Traitor.’

My unconditional loyalty to the Ultimate Avatar, to whom I belong in body and soul, and to my Führer, now makes me take this painful step, definitive in the Eternal Return, I know, and that means the rupture with a venerated friend of more than forty years; when still young I traveled to Antarctica with The Ego and the Unconscious in the pocket of my parka, the only book in which the idea of the two Collective Unconsciousnesses was present, and then my times in India with The Visits of the Queen of Sheba and the reading of his Complete Works. Then Switzerland and my meeting with him. And the writing of The Hermetic Circle which loses importance for me, recognizing in it only my absolute unconditional fidelity and loyalty to my friends, the tone and style of my existence, the way of being of our old gentry of Chile, my fatherland.

I could forgive and overlook the weakness of my friend, but not the bad conscience, the diabolical cunning used against an entire people and a beloved race of whom we have so many in this country, a nation in disgrace, physically beaten, inert. Because Nietzsche knew this well when he said the most evolved races are the weakest because they do not lie nor believe that others lie. “They are stupid like the eagle,” he said, “since they attack head on.” “That is why I love you, oh eagles!” Germans cannot believe that Jung lies… By using lies against the defeated Germans they destroyed them in their bodies and souls that are more delicate and weaker before evil, as superior species are before the harshness of nature and the dangers of history.

And if it were not so, then some day Germany and the youth of Germany shall return to rise to the heights and tensions of Spirit and Glory (and may it be very soon) from the hell their enemies prepared for them, but if so that would be due only to a miracle accomplished by the sacrifice of the Avatar, of their Führer and all who were and still are his partisans.

Until Death and Resurrection!

Heil Hitler! Sieg Heil!

Manu: For the Man to Come, from the section titled “My Disenchantment with Carl Gustav Jung”

The statements made by Dr. Jung after WWII found here; they are disgraceful and reveal both cowardice and dishonesty:

‘After the Catastrophe’ by Carl Jung (1945)

A selection from After the Catastrophe by Carl Jung, 1945.

Note: see the Appendix for some excerpts taken from a talk given by Jung in 1946, and broadcast by the British Broadcasting Corporation, called The Fight with the Shadow.

Questions are being asked on all sides about the meaning of the whole tragedy. […] I am only too well aware that ‘German’ presents an immense problem, and that the subjective views of a medical psychologists can touch only a few aspects of this gigantic tangle of questions.

Living as we do in the middle of Europe, we Swiss feel comfortably far removed from the foul vapours that arise from the morass of German guilt. But all this changes the moment we set foot, as Europeans, on another continent or come into contact with an Oriental people. What are we to say to an Indian who asks us: ‘You are anxious to bring us your Christian culture, are you not? May I ask if Auschwitz and Buchenwald are examples of European civilization?’ […] The world sees Europe as the continent on whose soil the shameful concentration camps grew… .

If the German intends to live on good terms with Europe, he must be conscious that in the eyes of Europeans he is a guilty man. As a German, he has betrayed European civilization and all its values; he has brought shame and disgrace on his European family, so that one must blush to hear oneself called a European… .

If a German is prepared to acknowledge his moral inferiority… before the whole world, without attempting to minimize it or explain it away with flimsy arguments, then he will stand a reasonable chance, after a time, of being taken for a more or less decent man, and will thus be absolved of his collective guilt… .

Long before 1933 there was a smell of burning in the air, and people were passionately interested in discovering the locus of the fire and in tracking down the incendiary. And when denser clouds of smoke were seen to gather over Germany, and the burning of the Reichstag gave the signal, then at last there was no mistake where the incendiary, evil in person, dwelt.

The sight of evil kindles evil in the soul… . Something of the abysmal darkness of the world has broken in on us, poisoning the very air we breathe and befouling the pure water with the stale, nauseating taste of blood… .

When evil breaks at any point into the order of things, our whole circle of psychic protection is disrupted.

The terrible things that have happened in Germany, … are a blow aimed at all Europeans. (We used to be able to relegate such things to ‘Asia!’) The fact that one member of the European family could sink to the level of the concentration camp throws a dubious light on all the others. Who are we to imagine that ‘it couldn’t happen here’? […] …a terrible doubt about humanity, and about ourselves gnaws at our heart.

Nevertheless, it should be clear to everyone that such a state of degradation can come about only under certain conditions. The most important of these is the accumulation of Urban, industrialized masses- of people torn from the soil, engaged in one-sided employment, and lacking every healthy instinct, even that of self-preservation. Loss of the instinct of self-preservation can be measured in terms of dependence on the state… . Dependence on the State means that everybody relies on everybody else (=State) instead of on himself. Every man hangs on to the next and enjoys a false feeling of security, for one is still hanging in the air even when hanging in the company of ten thousand other people. The only difference is that one is no longer aware of one’s own insecurity. The increasing dependence on the State is anything but a healthy symptom; it means that the whole nation is in a fair way to becoming a herd of sheep, constantly relying on a shepherd to drive them into good pastures. […] The steady growth of the Welfare State is no doubt a very fine thing from one point of view, but from another it is a doubtful blessing, as it robs people of their individual responsibility and turns them into infants and sheep. […] …once a man is cut off from the nourishing roots of instinct, he becomes the shuttle-cock of every wind that blows. He is then no better than a sick animal, demoralized and degenerate, and nothing short of a catastrophe can bring him back to health.

I own that in saying all this I feel rather like the prophet who, according to Josephus, lifted up his voice in lamentation over the city as the Romans laid siege to Jerusalem. It proved not the slightest use to the city, and a stone missile from a Roman ballista put an end to the prophet.

This is a pathological, demoralized, and mentally abnormal condition: one side of us does things which the other (so called decent) side prefers to ignore. This side is in a perpetual state of defence against real and supposed accusations. In reality the chief accuser is not outside, but the judge who dwells in our own hearts. Since this is nature’s attempt to bring about a cure, it would be wiser not to persist too long in rubbing the noses of Germans in their own abominations, lest we drown the voice of the accuser in their hearts… . […] The Germans were never wholly indifferent to the impression they made on the outside world. They resented disapproval and hated even to be criticized. Inferiority feelings make people touchy and lead to compensatory efforts to impress. As a result… ‘German efficiency’ is demonstrated with such aplomb that it leads to a reign of terror and the shooting of hostages. The German no longer thinks of these things as murder, for he is lost in considerations of his own prestige.

This spectacle recalls the figure of what Nietzsche so aptly calls the ‘pale criminal,’ who in reality shows all the signs of hysteria. […] He will stoop to every kind of self-deception if only he can escape the sight of himself. It is true that this happens everywhere, but nowhere does it appear to be such a national characteristic as in Germany. […] This condition can easily lead to an hysterical dissociation of the personality, which consists essentially… in wanting to jump over one’s own shadow, and in looking for everything dark, inferior, and culpable in others. Hence the hysteric always complains of being surrounded by people who are incapable of appreciating him and who are activated only by bad motives; by… a crowd of submen who should be exterminated neck and crop so that the Superman can live on his high level of perfection. The very fact that his thinking and feeling proceed along these lines is clear proof of inferiority in action. Therefore all hysterical people are compelled to torment others, because they are unwilling to hurt themselves by admitting their own inferiority. But since nobody can jump out of his skin and be rid of himself, they stand in their own way everywhere as their own evil spirit- and that is what we call an hysterical neurosis.

All these pathological features- complete lack of insight into one’s own character, auto-erotic self-admiration and self-extenuation, denigration and terrorization of one’s fellow men…, projection of the shadow, lying, falsification of reality, determination to impress by fair means or foul, bluffing and double-crossing- all these were united in the man who was diagnosed clinically [in 1918 at the psychiatric ward of the Reserve Hospital IV in Pasewalk by a Jewish doctor, Dr. Karl Kroner] as an hysteric [suffering from ‘hysterical blindness’], and whom a strange fate chose to be the political, moral, and religious spokesman of Germany for twelve years. Is this pure chance?

Hitler’s theatrical, obviously hysterical gestures struck all foreigners (with a few amazing exceptions) as purely ridiculous. When I saw him with my own eyes, he suggested a psychic scarecrow (with a broomstick for an outstretched arm) rather than a human being. It is also difficult to understand how his ranting speeches, delivered in shrill, grating, womanish tones, could have made such an impression. But the German people would never have been taken in and carried away so completely if this figure had not been a reflected image of the collective German hysteria. It is not without serious misgivings that one ventures to pin the label of ‘psychopathic inferiority’ on to a whole nation, and yet, heaven knows, it is the only explanation which could in any way account for the effect this scarecrow had on the masses. [….] These personal observations led me to conclude at the time (1937) that, when the final catastrophe came, it would be far greater and bloodier than I had previously supposed. For this theatrical hysteric… was not strutting about on a small stage, but was riding the armoured divisions of the Wehrmacht, with all the weight of German heavy industry behind him.

…one is at a loss to imagine how anything quite so monstrous ever came to power. But we must not forget that we are judging from today, from a knowledge of the events which led to the catastrophe. Our judgement would certainly be very different had our information stopped short at 1933 or 1934. At that time, in Germany as well as in Italy, there were not a few things that appeared plausible and seemed to speak in favour of the regime. An undeniable piece of evidence in his respect was the disappearance of the unemployed, who used to tramp the German highroads in their hundreds of thousands [see his essay on Wotan]. And after the stagnation and decay of the post-war years the refreshing wind that blew through the two countries was a tempting sign of hope.

Nobody but a German could ever have devised such a figure [as Goethe’s Faust], it is so intrinsically, so infinitely German. In Faust we see the same ‘hungering for the infinite’ born of inner contradiction…, the same eschatological expectation of the Great Fulfilment. […] Faust… is split and sets up ‘evil’ outside himself in the shape of Mephistopheles… . […] He remains the German idea of a human being, and therefore an image- somewhat overdone and distorted- of the average German.

The essence of hysteria is a systematic dissociation… . […] As a rule there is amazing ignorance of the shadow; the hysteric is only aware of his good motives… .

Ignorance of one’s other side creates great inner insecurity. […] This sense of insecurity is the source of the hysteric’s prestige psychology, of his need to make an impression, to flaunt his merits and insist on them, of his insatiable thirst for recognition, admiration, adulation, and longing to be loved.

To my mind, the history of the last twelve years is the case-chart of an hysteric patient.

The European, or rather the white man in general, is scarcely in a position to judge of his own state of mind. He is too deeply involved. I had always wanted to see Europeans through other eyes, and eventually I was able, on my many journeys, to establish sufficiently close relationships with non-Europeans to see the European through their eyes. The white man is nervous, restless, hurried, unstable, and (in the eyes of non-Europeans ) possessed by the craziest ideas, in spite of his energy and gifts which give him the feeling of being infinitely superior. The crimes he has committed against the coloured races are legion… . Primitives dread the sharply focused stare in the eye of the European, which seems to them like the evil eye. A Pueblo chieftain once confided to me that he thought all Americans (the only white men he knew) were crazy, and the reasons he gave for this view sounded exactly like a description of people who were possessed. Well, perhaps we are. For the first time since of the dawn of history we have succeeded in swallowing the whole of primitive animism into ourselves, and with it the spirit that animated nature. Not only were the gods dragged down from their planetary spheres and transformed into chthonic demons, but, under the influence of scientific enlightenment, even this band of demons, which at the time of Paraclesus still frolicked happily in mountains and woods, in rivers and human dwelling places, was reduced to a miserable remnant and finally vanished altogether. From time immemorial, nature was always filled with spirits. Now, for the first time, we are living in a lifeless nature bereft of gods. […] The mere act of enlightenment may have destroyed the spirits of nature, but not the psychic factors that correspond to them… – in short, all those qualities which make possession possible. Even though nature is depsychized, the psychic conditions which breed demons are as actively at work as ever. The demons have not really disappeared but have merely taken on another form: they have become unconscious psychic forces. The process of reabsorbtion went hand in hand with an increasing inflation of the ego, which became more and more evident after the sixteenth century. Finally we even began to be aware of the psyche, and, as history shows, the discovery of the unconscious was a particularly painful episode. Just when people were congratulating themselves on having abolished all spooks, it turned out that instead of haunting the attic or old ruins the spooks were flitting about in the heads of apparently normal Europeans. Tyrannical, obsessive, intoxicating ideas and delusions were abroad everywhere…. .

The phenomenon we have witnessed in Germany was nothing less than the first outbreak of epidemic insanity, an irruption of the unconscious into what seemed to be a tolerably well-ordered world. A whole nation, as well as countless millions belonging to other nations, were swept into the blood-drenched madness of a war of extermination.

Just think for a moment what anti-Semitism means for the German: he is trying to use others as a scapegoat for his own greatest fault! This symptom alone should have told him that he had got on to a hopelessly wrong track.

After the last World War the world should have begun to reflect, and above all German, which is the nerve-centre of Europe [not [sic] see ‘Course of German History’ where Germany is described as the mid point of Europe, in every sense]. […] If, as Burckhardt says, Faust strikes a chord in every German soul, this chord has certainly gone on ringing. We hear it echoing in Nietzsche’s Superman… . [W]here has the feminine side, the soul, disappeared to in Nietzsche? Helen has vanished in Hades, and Eurydice will never return.

While Nietzsche was prophetically responding to the schism of the Christian world with the art of thinking, his brother in spirit, Richard Wagner, was doing the same thing with the art of music. Germanic prehistory comes surging up, thunderous and stupefying, to fill the gaping breach in the Church. Wagner salved his conscience with Parsifal… but the Castle of the Grail vanished into an unknown land. […] Wotan the storm-god had conquered.

Now Germany has suffered the consequences of the pact with the devil,… she has been ravished by the berserkers of her god Wotan, been cheated of her soul for the sake of gold and world-mastery, and defiled by the scum rising from the lowest depths.

But the fate of Germany should not mislead Europeans into nursing the illusion that the whole world’s wickedness is localized in Germany. They should realize that the German catastrophe was only one crisis in the general European sickness. Long before the Hitler era, in fact long before the first World War, there were symptoms of the mental change taking place in Europe. The medieval picture of the world was breaking up and the metaphysical authority that ruled it was fast disappearing, only to reappear in man. Did not Nietzsche announce that God was dead and that his heir was the Superman… ? It is an immutable psychological law that when a projection has come to an end it always returns to its origin. So when somebody hits on the singular idea that God is dead, or does not exist at all, the psychic God-image, which is a dynamic part of the psyche’s structure, finds its way back into the subject and produces a condition of ‘God-Almightiness’… .

‘God-Almightiness’ does not make man divine, it merely fills him with arrogance and arouses everything evil in him. It produces a diabolic caricature of man, and this inhuman mask is so unendurable, such a torture to wear, that he tortures others. He is split in himself, a prey to inexplicable contradictions. Here we have the picture of the hysterical state of mind, of Nietzsche’s ‘pale criminal.’ Fate has confronted every German with his inner counterpart: Faust is face to face with Mephistopheles and can no longer say, ‘So that was the essence of the brute!’ He must confess instead: ‘That was my other side, my alter ego, my all too palpable shadow which can no longer be denied.’

This is not the fate of Germany alone, but of Europe.


…the tide that rose in the unconscious after the first World War was reflected in individual dreams [of my German patients], in the form of… mythological symbols which expressed primitivity, violence, cruelty: in short, all the powers of darkness.

I was able to… observe how the uprush of dark forces deployed itself in the individual test-tube. I could watch these forces as they broke through the individual’s moral and intellectual self-control, and as they flooded his conscious world.

…the uprush of mass instincts was symptomatic of a compensatory move of the unconscious. Such a move was possible because the conscious state of the people had become estranged from the natural laws of human existence. Thanks to industrialisation, large portions of the population were uprooted and were herded together in large centres [cities]. This new form of existence– with its mass psychology and social dependence on the fluctuation of markets and wages– produced an individual who was unstable, insecure, and suggestible. He was aware that his life depended on boards of directors and captains of industry, and he supposed, rightly or wrongly, that they were chiefly motivated by financial interests. He knew that, no matter how conscientiously he worked, he could still fall a victim at any moment to economic changes which were utterly beyond his control. And there was nothing else for him to rely on. […] No wonder, therefore, that it was precisely Germany that fell a prey to mass psychology, though she is by no means the only nation threatened by this dangerous germ. The influence of mass psychology has spread far and wide.

The individual’s feeling of weakness, indeed of non-existence, was thus compensated by the eruption of hitherto unknown desires for power. it was the revolt of the powerless, the insatiable greed of the “have-nots.” By such devious means the unconscious compels man to become conscious of himself. […] Thus the avalanche rolled on in Germany and produced its leader, who was elected as a tool to complete the ruin of the nation. But what was his original intention? He dreamed of a “new order.” We should be badly mistaken if we assumed that he did not really intend to create an international order of some kind. On the contrary, deep down in his being he was motivated by the forces of order… . Hitler was the exponent of a “new order,” and that is the real reason why practically every German fell for him. […] Like the rest of the world, they did not understand wherein Hitler’s significance lay, that he symbolized something in every individual. He was the most prodigious personification of all human inferiorities. […] He represented the shadow, the inferior part of everybody’s personality, in an overwhelming degree, and this was another reason why they fell for him.

In Hitler, every German should have seen his own shadow, his own worst danger.

Lothrop Stoddard’s Into the Darkness – Chapter 9: The Battle of the Land

The text from chapter nine of Lothrop Stoddard’s 1940 publication, Into the Darkness: An Uncensored Report from Inside the Third Reich at War — a book about his 1939 visit to Germany — is reproduced in full below:

The peasant is the life-spring of our Reich and our race.

Thus did Walther Darré, Minister of Agriculture and Food Supply, concisely state the Nazi attitude toward the land and those who work it. Blut und Boden! “Blood and Soil!” That is one of National Socialism’s key slogans. Nowhere has this revolutionary regime undertaken more daring and original experiments than upon the land itself. Of that I was aware when I came to Germany, so I was anxious to study this challenging phase of German life by first-hand observation.

The Minister was more than willing to assist. This big, energetic, good-looking man is one of the most interesting personalities among the Nazi leaders. As his name indicates, he descends from Huguenot ancestors who came to Germany three centuries ago. Furthermore, as I have stated, he was born in the Argentine. The son of a wealthy German resident, he spent his early life in South America. He is well qualified for his job, since he is an expert on agriculture and stockbreeding.


I have already quoted Dr. Darré on the food-card system now in operation*. However, in our conversations, he repeatedly emphasized that this was merely part of a much larger organic whole which far transcended the war. Here is how he summarized National Socialism’s agricultural aim and policy: “When we came to power in 1933, one of our chief endeavors was to save German agriculture from impending ruin. However, our agricultural program went far beyond mere economic considerations. It was based on the idea that no nation can truly prosper without a sound rural population. It is not enough that the farmers shall be tolerably well-off; they should also be aware of their place in the national life and be able to fulfill it. Here are the three big factors in the problem: First, to assure an ample food supply; second, to safeguard the future by a healthy population increase; third, to develop a distinctive national culture deeply rooted in the soil. This ideal logically implies an aim which goes far beyond what is usually known as an agrarian policy.” These factors were dealt with by three important pieces of legislation passed shortly after the Nazis came to power. They were: (1) The National Food Estate; (2) The Hereditary Farmlands Law; (3) The Market Control Statute.

The Food Estate is a gigantic quasi-public corporation embracing in its membership not only all persons immediately on the land but also everyone connected with the production and distribution of foodstuffs. Large landowners, small peasants, agricultural laborers, millers, bakers, canners, middlemen, right down to local butchers and grocers — they are one and all included in this huge vertical trust. The aim is to bring all these group interests, previously working largely at cross-purposes, into a harmonious, co-ordinated whole, concerned especially with problems of production and distribution. The Market Control Statute links all this with the consumer. The aim here is a thoroughgoing, balanced economic structure based on the principle known as the “just price.” Everybody is supposed to make a profit, but none are to be out of line with the others. Furthermore, the ultimate consumer is to be protected from profiteering.

The Hereditary Farmlands Law revives the old Teutonic concept that the landowner is intimately linked to the land. It is officially stated that “The idea engendered by Roman law that land was so much merchandise to be bought and sold at will is profoundly repugnant to German feelings. To us, soil is something sacred; the peasant and his land belong inseparably together.” Emphasis is thus laid on the Bauer, imperfectly translated by our word peasant. The German Bauer is an independent landowner, self-respecting and proud of the name. We can best visualize him as like the old English yeoman.

This is the class which National Socialism seeks to foster by making peasant holdings hereditary; keeping the farm in the family, and keeping it intact by having it descend through the oldest son. That was the old Teutonic method, which still prevails by custom in parts of Germany. Over 700,000 of these hereditary farm holdings have now been established. They cannot be sold or mortgaged; neither can a creditor seize the crop for the owner’s personal debt. To qualify as a hereditary peasant, however, a man must be of German blood and be able to manage his property. Title to the land is thus not absolute; it is rather functional in character.

This type of peasant is most numerous in Northwestern Germany. In the eastern provinces, great estates predominate. In Southern Germany, on the contrary, where farms have customarily been divided among all the children, holdings tend to be too small. The Nazis consider either extreme economically and socially unsound. They therefore seek to split up the big estates into moderate-sized peasant farmsteads, and combine small parcels into normal units. They are not trying to rush things, but considerable progress has been made along both lines.

-+- WG: ------------------------------------------- Von: Großeastroth Eva Gesendet: Montag, 11. Juni 2012 15:38:09 Diese Nachricht wurde automatisch von einer Regel weitergeleitet.

As usual, the Nazis have tried to enlist psychology in their agricultural endeavors. The Bauer’s traditional pride is flattered in many ways. He is extolled as the Third Reich’s “nobility of the soil”; the vital well-spring of national life. Everything is done to encourage his corporate spirit, from reviving costumes and folk-dances to an annual Peasant Congress and a gigantic festival on the historic Bueckeberg. The Nazis frankly admit that mere planning and regulation from above, no matter how efficient, will not attain the desired goal — a flourishing agriculture which will feed the whole nation. Not unless the rural population is inspired to do its utmost will the experiment succeed. It is this psychological aspect which Nazi spokesmen have in mind when they speak of the Inner Front. As Darré told me: “We saw from the first that we could not reach our goal through state action alone. We needed the help of the organized farmers to put it over.” Such was the theory. How was it working out in practice? “See for yourself,” said Dr. Darré. He thereupon proposed that I make an investigation trip through what he considered the most instructive region — rural Westphalia and Oldenburg. There I would see in successful operation an agricultural system and way of life basically unchanged since the Middle Ages. It was upon this system, adapted to modern conditions, that the National Socialist Government had framed its land laws, which it intends ultimately to extend throughout the Reich. I would thus see a sort of working model for a hoped-for future.

A few days after this conversation I left Berlin for the projected tour, accompanied by one of the Minister’s right-hand men. He was Dr. Friedrich Sohn, a leading agronomist who had also studied agricultural conditions in America and had done special work in the Brookings Institution at Washington. He could thus compare German and American agriculture in a most useful way. As usual, an elaborate schedule had been drawn up for a comprehensive survey, with many stops to visit farms, large and small, and ample time to chat with the owners, look over their livestock, and examine methods of cultivation. A shy man, Dr. Sohn handed me the typewritten schedule rather anxiously. “This means that we’ll be going every day from dawn till after dark,” he said with a deprecating smile. I assured him that was all right with me, as I wanted to make the most of this trip. This cheered him up no end. Germans really like hard work, and they seem always delighted when a foreigner is willing to hit the same pace.


We left Berlin by train just after lunch and journeyed westward via Hanover to Minden, where we were to spend the first night. We arrived after dark. The railway station is some distance from the town itself, so we had to rustle our bags through the misting rain to a waiting tram almost tiny enough to pose for a model of the famous Toonerville Trolley. On our way, we nearly ran over a drunk who had chosen the space between the rails for his couch. The motorman heaved the sleeper impatiently to the roadside and kept on, reporting the incident to a policeman on post as we entered town.

We stopped at a little hotel decorated in the plush splendor of the 1870’s. They dine early in the provinces, so when we got to the dining room it was almost empty except for one large Stammtisch in a far corner. About that table sat a dozen big, blond men smoking fat cigars and drinking from generous steins of beer. Our meal confirmed what I had already heard about the less stringent food regulations in the small towns. It was a meatless day, but I rejoiced to see egg dishes on the menu. I hastened to order fried eggs, “sunny side up,” and got two big beauties. The fresh yolks beamed at me from the blue-bordered plate. Those were the first eggs I had seen in Germany since the Press junket; but those had been rather “off the record” while these were evidently a matter of course. I was still more astonished to see a nice piece of fried ham nestling beside the eggs, while the next instant my waiter placed a pat of butter on the table, with no request for my foodcard. I looked inquiringly at Dr. Sohn. “Out here they don’t bother much about such matters,” he smiled.

After dinner, the head of the local Bauernschaft, or Peasants’ Organization, came to pay his respects and talk over the trip planned for the next day. Like most of these officials, he was an obvious countryman. The Bauernschaft is really run by “dirt farmers.” We breakfasted early and entered the motor car ordered for us just as the late autumn dawn was breaking. It was a small sedan, through the windows of which I caught charming glimpses of historic Minden with its crooked streets and gabled houses. The day was cold and cloudy. By the time we had reached our first scheduled stop, I was somewhat chilled. This was the town of Enger, where we were to do a bit of sightseeing — but with a practical purpose. Here is the burial place of Widukind, the legendary Saxon chieftain who for so long withstood the might of Charlemagne. The Nazis have glorified Widukind as a popular hero, defending primitive Germanism and the old gods against Karl the Great who is described as a Latinized Teuton seeking to impose upon the Saxons the yoke of a revived Roman Empire and an equally alien Roman faith. That, at least, is the thesis of the handsome little booklet given me when I visited the new Widukind Memorial, half museum and half shrine. The booklet also states that, long after the Saxon nobles had lost heart and given up the fight, the tribal masses stood by their patriot hero to the death. Perchance the intent is to suggest a primeval Fuehrer? We were now well into rural Westphalia, and our investigations had begun. But before relating details, let me sketch in the background. The districts I was to visit all lie in what is undoubtedly the most Teutonic part of Germany. From Westphalia northward to the North Sea Coast and the Holstein peninsula to the Danish border stretches the region which can perhaps best be called Old Saxon-Land. This region should not be confused with the modern province of Saxony, which is far to the southward and has no historical connection. What I refer to as Old Saxon-Land is the primeval home of those Teutonic tribes some of whom migrated oversea and conquered Britain. It is interesting to note that the old blood still shows in the present population. A large proportion of the peasantry have long heads and faces, ruddy blond complexions, and frames which, though tall and muscular, are seldom rotund or thickset. Such persons could very easily pass for English rural types. Some of them, indeed, with different clothes and haircuts, would look quite like old-stock Americans.


For the American visitor, the general aspect of this region has a familiar look. In other parts of Germany the rural population lives in villages. Old Saxon-Land, however, is throughout a country of detached farms. Each family lives on its own holding, entirely separate from its neighbors. This, indeed, typifies the traditional spirit of the folk. The Old Saxons have been, and for the most part still are, independent land-holders. There are relatively few large estates held by noblemen. The region is predominantly inhabited by a landowning peasantry.

Within itself, this peasantry varies considerably in economic and social standing. At the top stand large farms of two hundred acres or more, while the smallest holdings are only a few acres. Most of the large farms are worked, not by temporary hired labor, but by tenant farmers. The relations of these tenants to their proprietors are highly personal and are regulated by contracts and customs going back to ancient times. Some tenant holdings have been in the same family for generations.

The agricultural system and way of life in Old Saxon-Land cannot be understood unless we realize that these people, no matter what the size of their holdings, all feel themselves to be fellow-peasants. Even the wealthy owner of many acres and proprietor to several tenants is very much of a dirt farmer. He probably has been away to school and possesses a good education. Nevertheless, he works with his hands, wears farm clothes and wooden shoes, and is just as close to the soil as anyone else. He has no wish to be a nobleman or even a “squire” in the English sense. However, he has a deep though unobtrusive pride in himself and his place in the world. With good reason, too; for in many cases his forebears have been leaders in the local community since time immemorial. One big farm I visited, which had been in the same family for over five centuries, had been continuously cultivated with scant change in boundaries ever since the year 960 A.D. — more than a hundred years before the Norman Conquest of England! The quiet dignity and mellow beauty of these old farmsteads must be seen to be appreciated. They consist of a number of buildings ranged about a courtyard, whence their German name of Hof. They are always built of timbered red brick, though the timber patterns differ from one district to another. As you enter the courtyard, you have directly in front of you the main building — an impressive structure with high-pitched roof running down to within a few feet of the ground. This building is very long; sometimes well over a hundred feet. It houses both the master-farmer and his animals. When you enter the great doorway you find cows and horses stalled on either side. Only the malodorous pigs are today usually relegated to other quarters, though formerly they lived there too.

peiner Autumn in the Eifel gdk 1938

At the rear of the farmstead are the family living-quarters. In olden days there was no partition between, so the master-farmer could survey his livestock directly from his great bed and watch the work going on. Today, the living-quarters are walled off from the barn itself, though with handy access through one or more doors. Back of the living-quarters lies a moderate-sized pleasure garden, filled with shrubs and flowerbeds, and usually walled in by high hedges. Here the family take their ease on summer evenings.

The smaller farmsteads are built on precisely the same lines as the great Hofs, though everything is on a lesser scale. In the old tenant farmsteads conditions are decidedly primitive. The living-quarters are not merely under the same roof; they are right in with the animals. Yet even here I found no filth or squalor. The air might be pungent with the smell of cows and horses, but the rooms were always neat and clean.

Maier Johann awaited me as my motor car drove in through the outer gate of the farmstead and stopped in the middle of the wide courtyard. The yard was surrounded by buildings of timbered brick. Indeed, the yard itself was paved with brick, liberally coated with sticky black soil tracked in by wagons, men, and animals. My host stood in the great doorway of his Hof, his ancestral abode.

Maier Johann is a wealthy man, as wealth is reckoned in those parts. He owns over two hundred acres of rich land, most of it under crops though with some pasture and woodland. His ancestors have owned it for nearly eight hundred years. From the first glance it is clear that he is a good manager. Everything is well kept up.

The front of the Hof is a sight in itself. From the high-pitched roof to the ground, this front is elaborately carved, and those old carvings are painted in many colors. From them you learn that the present Hof was built in the year 1757. There is a curious mixture of pious Christian texts and symbols coming down from heathen times — sun, moon, stars, the signs of fertility, and black ravens for good luck. On the massive oak timbers of the doorway, wide and high enough for hay wagons to drive in, are carved and painted the Norse Trees of Life, together with symbolic serpents to guard the humans and animals dwelling inside from evil spirits that might seek to intrude.

My host is a Maier. That is not a family name. It denotes his rank, and has the same significance as the original meaning of our word “mayor” — leading man in a community. The farmstead is thus a Maierhof. But he is not merely a Maier, he is a Sattelmaier. That means a leading man on a fully-caparisoned horse; in short, a man-atarms, who ranked next to a knight in Feudal times. It is the very tiptop of the peasant hierarchy. Only a few Sattelmaiers are to be found in this countryside.

When a Sattelmaier dies, the bells in the parish church toll for an hour in a special way. The coffin containing the deceased is taken to the church in a wagon lined with straw and drawn by six horses. Behind the wagon paces the dead man’s favorite steed, led by the oldest of his tenant farmers. During the funeral service, the horse looks in through the open church door, and he also inspects the grave while his master is laid to rest. On such occasions the whole countryside turns out to pay final honors.

These curious ceremonies have not been described merely to make a quaint story; they typify the spirit of this conservative yet virile folk. The proudest Sattelmaier is neither nobleman nor squire. He is a peasant — a master-peasant, if you will, yet still a peasant — the first among basic equals.

Of this, Maier Johann was a good example. He knew I was coming to see him, but he had made no attempt to “dress up.” So he met me clad in an old hunting-cap, heavy farm clothes, and wooden shoes flecked with mud from work about the stables. A tall, fair man, ruddy from a life spent in the open, he led me through the doorway into the long barnlike Hof, lined with cow-stalls on one side and horse-stalls on the other. The brick floor was partly covered by a pile of hay from the loft above and heaps of green fodder. The loft flooring was supported by massive oak beams two feet thick, hand-hewn and dark with age.

At the far end of the barn was a wooden partition, walling off the living-quarters. Into these we passed through a low door, and I found myself in a hall stretching the width of the Hof. This hall contained several pieces of massive furniture, obviously family heirlooms and elaborately carved. The doors and wainscoting were carved in similar fashion.

On the walls hung several portraits of army officers. My host explained. “This,” said he, pointing to the framed sketch of a bearded man in a hussar uniform, “is an ancestor of mine who was killed in the Danish War of the 1800’s.” He pointed again: “Here is a relative who fell before Paris in 1871.” Again: “This is my uncle, killed in the World War.” He made no mention of an excellent likeness of himself in officer’s field-gray. The earlier portraits were especially interesting to anyone who recalls the caste spirit of the old Prussian Army. They revealed perhaps better than aught else the peculiar social status of the Sattelmaier — a master-peasant who was nevertheless eligible to a commission alongside noblemen and gentlemen.

One other portrait hung on the wall: a painting of a very old man with shrewd blue eyes twinkling behind features withered like a red apple. My host smiled almost tenderly. “A Heuerling,” he answered my unspoken question. “One of our tenant farmers. He died last winter at the age of ninety-four.” Maier Johann was the only Sattelmaier I visited. But he was merely a somewhat wealthier and more prominent specimen of a generalized type. The other master-peasants with whom I stopped were very similar in appearance and character, and their homes were much the same. All of them appeared to be capable, practical men, naturally intelligent and with a fair measure of education; yet never “citified” and always in closest touch with the earth which nourished them. Their homes were free from pretentiousness or cheap modernity; their farms were models of careful husbandry — a good, sound breed.


As might be expected, their hospitality was as ample as it was unaffected. Most of all do I remember the country breakfasts — those European “second breakfasts” which are eaten in the middle of the forenoon. Picture me seated in an old room with carved wainscoting and beamed ceiling, heated by a tall tiled stove. Around a long table sit big brawny men and buxom women, eating heartily of the food with which the board is laden. Those viands may sound simple to American readers in our fortunate land of plenty, but to me, fresh from strictly rationed Berlin, they were luxuries indeed. In Berlin my butter ration was about an ounce per day; here was a stack of butter nearly as big as your head! Platters of smoked Westphalian ham and varied sausages, flanked by piles of rye bread and pumpernickel. Best of all, a big platter of hard-boiled eggs fresh from the nest. No food-cards for the folk who produce Germany’s food! The one thing lacking was coffee, for no one in Germany has coffee except invalids, wounded men in hospital, and soldiers at the front. But there were cups of strong meat bouillon, and later on small yet potent glasses of schnapps or brandy to wash down the meal. Then German cigars, mild and quite good, were passed around, and we sat back to chat amid a haze of blue tobacco smoke.

It was hard to leave those cordial hosts and their kindly hospitality. Always with regret did I quit the cozy living-room, walk down the long vista of the barn, climb into my waiting car, and wave farewells until the motor had passed out of the Hof gates and taken once more to the road.

One of the outstanding features of the agricultural system of northwestern Germany is the tenant farmer. In that region he is called a Heuerling. This is the German variant of our old English word “hireling.” With us, the word has come to have a bad meaning. It signifies a man who has sold himself into some unworthy or criminal service. In German, however, it means simply a hired man, and in Northwestern Germany it applies especially to a peculiar sort of tenancy.

The Heuerling is not a casual or seasonal agricultural laborer. In Northwest Germany, landless, floating farm labor is little in evidence. Only since the outbreak of the present war with the consequent enrollment of many young peasants as soldiers has such labor been much needed. For centuries, the Heuerling has supplied the basic answer. The nearest thing we have to him in America is the “hired man” in rural New England, who is usually a farm fixture, often for life.

The New England hired man, however, is ordinarily a bachelor, living under the same roof with his employer and virtually part of the immediate family. The Heuerling has a house of his own, together with a small tract of land which he can work in his spare time. His home is a miniature farmstead. Like the spacious Hof of the proprietor, it shelters family and animals under one roof — and in the closest proximity. Those animals are supplied to him by the proprietor as part of the tenancy contract — at least one milch cow and several pigs, to say nothing of poultry. The Heuerling also gets a cash wage. In return for all this he is bound to give the master-peasant who employs him most of his time. A large farm of two hundred acres may have five or six of these tenant households within its borders.

I suppose that this system, like every other, has its share of abuses. But from all the evidence I could gather, it seems to work satisfactorily. In the first place, the system is very ancient, and tenancies are made in accordance with long-established custom and precedent. Even more important, there is no class distinction involved. As already remarked, all these folk feel themselves to be fellowpeasants, and they actually work side by side. Their basic social equality is revealed by the way they always speak to one another in the second person singular — the German Du, which implies close familiarity. Another favorable sign is the way these tenancies are cherished. Some tenant farmsteads I visited had been in the same family for generations. Certainly, all the Heuerlings I met and talked with appeared to be upstanding men — simple and good-natured, if you will, yet not a type to be browbeaten or ill-used. The whole system is intensely personal in its relationships. In fact, it is quite feudal, still infused with the spirit of medieval times.


The best example of the quaintly feudal loyalty which the Heuerling entertains toward his master-peasant employer is one which came to my attention during a visit to a certain large farmstead. The owner had died suddenly about a year before, leaving a widow, a son only sixteen years old, and a still younger daughter. The management of the farm was immediately taken over by the most capable of the Heuerlings in conjunction with the widow, and this joint regency was working so successfully that there seemed to be no danger that the farm would run down before the heir was old enough to take matters into his own hands.

The most vivid recollection I have of a Heuerling’s home is one I visited late one afternoon. Darkness had already fallen as my motor struggled up a muddy, rutty lane and finally stopped before a small farmstead redolent of age. The gatelike doorway opened to our knock and I found myself in a curious house-barn interior where a cow gazed tranquilly from its stall into a tiny kitchen across the way, and where chickens roosted in surprising places. This strange household was dimly lit by a few oil lamps which threw a mellow sheen on beams and walls nearly three centuries old.

The Heuerling, a hale old man and his equally hale wife, greeted me without the slightest trace of self-consciousness. I had come at a good moment, he said, for he had something interesting to show me — the pig he had long been fattening and which he had slaughtered that very morning. Visibly swelling with pride, he led me to the rear of the house, and I mentally agreed that his pride was justified, for it was certainly a mammoth porker. As the great carcass, immaculately dressed, swung gently from a beam in the ceiling, it bulked enormous in the dim light. I was told it weighed nearly five hundred pounds, and I do not think the man exaggerated.

Such, briefly, is the old Heuerling system, and the homes and human types it produces. It is interesting to note that the German Government is actively fostering this system and seeks to extend it further afield, with such modifications as new circumstances call for. Wherever a large or middle-sized farm needs more regular labor, the Government offers to loan the proprietor about two-fifths of the cost of building a Heuerling house, the loan to be repaid over a considerable term of years. Such houses as I saw were not of the old type. They were severely practical two-story affairs, with no room for animals, though with ample cellar space for storing vegetables and preserves. Built solidly of brick, tile, and concrete, they appear to be fireproof throughout. Except for a small kitchen-garden plot they have no land attached to them, but I am told that the proprietor is bound to furnish certain amounts of meat and other foodstuffs. Rental contracts run for a year. The terms vary according to the kind of employment. One man whose home I inspected was a professional milker, brought down from Friesland. He naturally has no time for anything but his cows, so his contract calls for an almost wholly cash wage.

This young man and his sturdy little wife were un-disguisedly proud of the new home they had just furnished. The furniture, though plain, looked of good quality. They told me that most of it had been paid for out of the l,000-Mark ($400) loan which the Government will make to any healthy young couple at the time of their marriage. It is to be repaid in small installments, but one-fourth of it is canceled every time a baby is born. So a prolific couple should not have to repay very much.

The Government seeks in every way to tie these new settlers to the land and make them into Heuerlings of the old school. One of the most striking inducements which it offers is a sort of long-service bonus. After a man has served satisfactorily for five successive years, the Government offers to make him a gift of from 600 to 800 Marks if he will sign a five-year contract with his employer. Although these attempts to extend and modernize an age-old system have been inaugurated too recently to yield much evidence as to their success, they constitute an interesting experiment in agricultural labor relations.


How are the Nazis faring in their Battle of the Land? That is a complex question, hard to answer. Personally, I examined in detail only one sector of the “agricultural front,” and was presumably shown the best of that. However, we have some definite information, and I supplemented this by discussions with Germans and qualified foreign students of the problem.

The Third Reich does not seem to be in any immediate danger of actual starvation from the British blockade. At present rations, there is enough grain, meat, potatoes, and other stock vegetables including beet sugar to last for at least two years. [Footnote: This was written on the basis of what I could learn in Germany down to my departure in January, 1940. I have since had information that the record cold during the winter months froze and spoiled vast amounts of stored potatoes and other vegetables. This point and its possible effects are discussed in Chapter XXII.] The German grain crop for 1938 was 27,430,000 tons — about 2,000,000 tons over normal consumption. The amount of the grain reserve is secret; but it is known to be very large. Estimates range from twelve to eighteen months. Also, Germany can import grain in quantity from Hungary and other parts of Central Europe; possibly also from Russia, especially as time goes on.

The last German potato crop was 56,300,000 tons, of which less than one-third is needed for human consumption, despite the wartime shift to a potato diet.

The balance goes chiefly for feeding pigs and distillation into alcohol, used largely for commercial purposes and for mixing with motor fuels. There is an abundance of sugar beets, likewise an excellent animal feed. Cabbage, turnips, and other vegetables are all in satisfactory shape.

Germany has a growing number of hogs — a vital source of fat as well as of meat. Hogs do well on a diet of sugar beets and potatoes. The last hog census for Greater Germany showed 28,613,000 porkers, an increase of no less than 53 per cent over December, 1938. Cattle herds number almost 20,000,000. Even under the worst conditions, that should furnish a lot of milk, and of meat at the present ration — one pound per week per person.

That is the bright side of the picture, from the German point of view. But we have already discussed the dark side — a crucial lack of fats and other shortages which result in an unbalanced diet injurious to health and strength over a period of time. The German people is today on iron rations. They cannot be notably reduced without disaster. Can they be maintained for years at their present level? The answer to that question depends on certain long-range factors, especially the efficiency of the present agricultural system and the temper of the farming population. The Nazi regime has established a highly complex economic structure with fixed prices all along the line. Agriculture has been basically socialized. To be sure, the peasant owns his land and has been protected against heavy loss, but he is no longer a free agent. He must grow what he is told and sell at established rates. He is virtually tied to the soil and his initiative is narrowly circumscribed. Economic security has been coupled with rigid state control.

For the first few years of the Nazi regime, the peasant probably gained on balance. But with the introduction of the Four Year Plan toward the close of 1936, agriculture ceased to be the White-Haired Boy. An intensive rearmament program coupled with colossal reconstruction projects had first call on both capital and labor. This imposed serious handicaps upon agriculture, which the war tends to intensify. One of these is a farm-labor shortage. At the annual Peasant Congress in December, 1938, Minister Darré admitted that there were 400,000 fewer workers on the land than when the Nazis came to power, and the deficit is probably much larger than that figure. Furthermore, we must remember that this is only part of a general shortage of labor in every phase of Germany’s economic life. The Government is striving to overcome this by compulsory labor service for young men and women, and it has promised that 1,000,000 Poles would be imported to work on German farms. It remains to be seen how efficient such amateur or conscript labor will be as compared with seasoned farm workers.

Recently the Government raised the prices of milk and butter as avowed incentives to the farming population. No such disturbance of its nicely balanced price system would have been made if the need for such action had not been urgent.

The Battle of the Land thus goes forward. What the outcome will be, only time can tell.


*Dr. Stoddard in Chapter 7 – Iron Rations:

The food regulations today in force assure to the poorest German the basic necessities of life while the richest cannot get much more than his share. So long as the German people believe that the system will enable them to keep above the hunger-line, there seems to be scant likelihood of a popular revolt over food alone.

What the system means was explained by Walther Darré, Minister of Agriculture and in supreme charge of the food situation, when he said to me: “Our foodcards constitute merely the last link in an economic chain which we were forging long before the war. This chain extends from farm grower to consumer, with stable prices all along the line. The food-card is the final act of the whole carefully-worked-out process, ensuring to each citizen his share of food, no matter what the size of his income. In the World War, food-cards were a sign of want. They were started only when a dangerous scarcity already existed. This time, foodcards, started the very first day of the war, are a symbol of strength.”

Herr Darré’s statement has a two-fold significance. It shows both the economic advantages of wartime rationing and its steadying effect on the popular state of mind. This second aspect is perhaps the more important. In the World War, the old Imperial German Government did practically nothing to control food conditions during the first two years of the struggle. The result was a vast deal of hoarding, profiteering, and a general skyrocketing of prices. Rich families laid in big stocks while poor men went hungry. These obvious injustices did more than anything else to rouse popular resentment and promote revolutionary unrest. It is well known that civilian morale broke down long before that of the soldiers at the front. Also, this civilian breakdown ultimately infected the armies in the field. The Nazi leaders are keenly aware of all this and are determined that it shall not happen again.

The Myth of the 20th Century: Spiritual Inspiration for the Racial-Soul

The following excerpts originate from Dr. Alfred Rosenberg’s magnum opus: The Myth of the Twentieth Century

The Myth is the Myth of the Blood, which, under the sign of the Swastika, released the World Revolution. It is the Awakening of the Soul of the Race, which, after a period of long slumber, victoriously put an End to Racial Chaos. –p. 2

Book One: The Conflict of Values – Chapter I. Race and Race Soul

“In this struggle, we must fight on the side of Ahura Mazda (just as the Einheriar in Valhalla would fight for Odin against the Fenris Wolf and the Midgard Serpent). Man must not, therefore, withdraw into world renouncing contemplation and asceticism. He must see himself as the struggling bearer of a world preserving idea; he must arouse and arm all the creative powers of the human soul. Whether as a thinker or an active creator, man must always serve what is highest. Wherever he goes, he serves the creative principle—when he sows and reaps; when he is true to himself; when he considers a handshake as an inviolable oath. The Vendidat epitomises all this in the sublime words: Whoever sows grain, sows saintliness.” –p. 62

“At another level, mythology is permeated with the heroic and linked with the inquiring spirit and the yearning for knowledge. In this way the gods became the representatives of various impulses of will and spirit. The sun god of the ancient Indians was prayed to in the early morning not only for fertility but also for wisdom, while Odin sacrificed one of his eyes in the quest of knowledge.” –p. 125

Book One: The Conflict of Values – Chapter II. Love and Honour

“Belief in Wotan was admittedly dying, but the sacred groves in which the god was worshipped remained the goal of Germanic pilgrims. All destruction of the Wotan symbols and the cursing of the old belief did not help. So in place of Wotan, Christian martyrs and saints such as holy Martin were set up. Cloak, sword and horse were his symbols (thus the same symbols as Wotan, Odin); the respected groves of the sword god became in this manner the places of holy Martin, the saint of war, who is still worshipped today by German pilgrims (for example, the Schwertslocher chapel). Saint George and saint Michael also represent the renaming of old Nordic deities who through this baptism arrived in the domain of the Roman church. The she devil Lady Venus has been transformed into saint Pelagia; Donar, the thunderer and the cloud god, became saint Peter guarding heaven; the Wotanlike character of the wild huntsman is imparted to saint Oswald, and on chapters and carvings the redeemer Widar is shown tearing the Fenris Wolf to pieces (for example, at Berchtesgaden). The same Widar, who in trying to save Odin swallowed by the Fenris Wolf, kills the monster. The comparison with Jesus is clear. Even the pious Hrabanus Maurus, the most learned church teacher in Germany at the end of the 8th century, represents god as dwelling in the fortress of heaven, an idea which originates not from the bible, but from the heroic ancient Germanic soul.

On the first of May, old Germania celebrated Walpurgis night, the beginning of the twelve festive nights of the summer solstice. It was the day of Wotan’s (Wodan, Odin) wedding with Freya. Today the sacred Walburg celebrates its name day on the first of May, while all customs have been altered by the church into magic and witchcraft, nature symbolism being thus transformed into oriental diabolism.

In Regensburg a chalice is preserved on a copper gilded stand, which is only drunk from on John’s day. This was the ancient form of festive wine for communion (which was still preached by the church in both forms in the 13th century) on December 27, the post celebration of the winter solstice. In remembrance of very old love potions, wine is still handed around from saint Sebastian’s skull cup even today (for example in Ebersberg, Upper Bavaria). This drinking to love, and drinking for luck to saint John the Baptist, to saint Martin and saint Stephen, are all very old customs. The devout catholic Johann Nepomuk Sepp says: The cup of Christ has been withheld from laymen by Rome, but the folk has not allowed the ancient pagan cup to be taken from it.

Along with customs, songs and images also altered. We see Oswald the holy illustrated in the Book of saints of 1488. He sits upon a throne in royal dress and crown. Around him fly the two ravens of Odin. Only the palms and the shepherd’s crook are Christian additions. Odin is still worshipped today under the name of Oswald and, for example, he has his church in Traunstein, but also sacred places on the Lower Rhine, in Holland, and in Belgium. Even the legend of saint Kuemmernis goes back to the figure of Odin as the Edda describes him to us, when Odin hung on the windy tree for nine nights wounded by a spear. The figure of a bearded, crucified man (Odin, Donar) who throws down a golden shoe to those who pray to him, recurs in many old sculptures and as motif in many songs. The female saint Kuemmernis has developed from this figure in a way still not completely clarified.

The church thus had to accommodate itself, to set its saints upon fiery steeds, to send them swinging sword and spear into battle with dragons and other foes, to acquire honour and fame or to save captured virgins from the clutches of an evildoer. The statues of Roland and saint George are examples of this kind which were only gradually replaced by those of Mary: in place of the symbol of honour the allegory of love appeared.

The Nordic gods were figures of light with spear and radiant cross and swastika, the symbols of the sun, of fertile ascending life. Since long before 3000 B.C., Nordic folkish waves carried these symbols, as can be proved, to Greece, Rome, Troy and India. Minutius Felix is zealous against the pagan cross; until finally the Roman (shaped like a T) gallows upon which Jesus was nailed, had to be recast to this pagan, now Christian, cross, and the pagan sun or cross of heaven appeared as saintly light above the heads of church martyrs or messengers of faith. Today we experience the birth of a new science: that of the interpretation of ancient Germanic symbolism. The circle with the four spokes appears as a cross of heaven, that is, as a projection of the directions of the sky, the sixfold division as points of the summer winter solstice. It is this symbolism of a cosmic kind which passes through all the centuries, taken over mysteriously as the last fragments of a time which laid down its world picture of the father of heaven, birth, death and eternity with symbols instead of with letters. The allegories of the sun are an excerpt from this world picture. The ray of light, the lance, becomes the allegory of ruling. The riding god with the lance therefore appears again and again anew on Christian memorial stones and designs: this was the eternal wanderer Wotan (Odin, Wodan) riding through the history of Christianity. Divided into many figures, this god lived and cast spells as saint Oswald, as saint George, as saint Martin, as a rider with the lance, indeed as saint Kuemmernis in catholic countries, and today as der Wode still passes invisibly through the soul of the people in Lower Saxony. As long as a people lives, its gods are immortal. That was Wotan’s revenge after his decline, until Baldur arose again and called himself the saviour of the world.” –pp. 141-143

Book One: The Conflict of Values – Chapter III. Mysticism and Action

“In the search for a new spiritual link with the past, there are those among the present day movement for renewal in Germany who wish to go back to the Edda and the cycle of Germanic ideas related to it. It is thanks to them that, alongside that which is purely fabulous, the inner richness of our sagas and folkish tales has again become visible from under the rubble and ashes left by the fires of the stake. But, in pursuing this longing to find inner substance with past generations and their religious allegories, the German faith overlooks that Wotan (Wodan, Odin) is dead as a religious form. He did not die at the hands of Bonifacius, but of himself. He completed the decline of the gods during a mythological epoch, a time of serene nature. His fall was already foreseen in the Nordic poems, although hopes were expressed for the coming of the strong one from above, in presentiment of the unavoidable twilight of the gods. In place of this, however, to the misfortune of Europe, the Syrian Jehovah appeared in the shape of his representative: the Etruscan Roman pope. Odin was and is dead; but the German mystic discovered the strong one from above in his own soul. The Valhalla of the gods descended from misty infinity into the breasts of men. The discovery and preaching of the indestructible freedom of soul was an act of salvation which has protected us up to the present against all attempts at strangulation.” –p. 178

“The ancient Teutonic idea of god is likewise inconceivable without spiritual freedom. Jesus also spoke of the kingdom of heaven within us. The strength of spiritual search already shows itself in the world wanderer, Odin.” –pp. 194-195

Book Two: Nature of Germanic Art – Chapter IV. The Aesthetic Will

“The essence of all Nordic western art has been revealed in Richard Wagner. It shows that the Nordic soul is not contemplative, that it does not lose itself in an individualistic psychology. Rather, it experiences the willed cosmic spiritual laws, and shapes our art spiritually architectonically. Richard Wagner is one of those artists in whom three factors coincide, each of which form a part of our entire artistic life: the Nordic ideal of beauty as it appears outwardly in Lohengrin and Siegfried, linked to deepest feeling for nature; the inner will of man in Tristan and Isolde; and the struggle for the highest value of Nordic western man: heroic honour, linked with inner truthfulness. This inner ideal of beauty is realised in Wotan, in King Mark and in Hans Sachs. Conversely, Parsival is a strongly emphasised weakening of the will in favour of an adoptive value.” –pp. 304-305

Book Three: The Coming Reich – Chapter II. The State and the Sexes

“Life is being and becoming, consciousness and subconsciousness simultaneously. In his eternal becoming, the man seeks to create a being through the formation of ideas and works. These things form the world as an organically architectonic structure. Woman is the eternal guardian of the subconscious.

The Nordic Germanic myths represent the goddess Freya as the protectress of eternal youth and beauty. If one robbed the gods of her, then they would age and decline. Through her relationship to Loki, primeval mythic wisdom is revealed. Loki was a bastard of the gods. There was once a lengthy discussion concerning whether he should be recognised as being of equal rank to other gods in Valhalla. Finally, this was granted. This bastard Loki played the role of contractor when Odin’s fortress was to be rebuilt by giants. He then offered Freya as payment! When the gods heard of this agreement, they refused to honour it, whereupon Loki cheated the giants. Then Odin, the guardian of the law, himself fell into the pangs of guilt. His attempt to make expiation was the downfall of Valhalla. In this myth we find a deep perception which is awakening again only today. The bastard thoughtlessly handed over the symbol of racial immortality, of eternal youth, and thus pulled the noble into participation in his guilt. What may Odin indeed have whispered into the ears of dead Baldur when he accompanied him on his last journey?

Translated into present day language, the Germanic Myth says: In the hand and in the nature of woman lies the preservation of our race. A people can still pull itself up out of political servitude, but never again from racial pollution. If the women of a nation give birth to black or Jewish bastards, if the muddy tide of black art passes unhindered over Europe as today, if the Jewish brothel literature comes into homes, if the Syrian of the Kurfürstendamm is also regarded as a folkish comrade and a marriageable man—then such conditions will ensure that Germany—and the whole of Europe—will be populated in its intellectual centres by bastards. With the teaching of erotic rebirth, the Jew of today reaches out—aided by the teachings of the emancipation of women—at the roots of our entire being. Just when an awakening Germany will reach the stage of carrying out a merciless cleansing with an iron broom and with ruthless discipline is uncertain. But, if anywhere, then in the preaching of remaining pure in race, lies the holiest and greatest task of woman today. This means the guarding and preserving of that unconscious, of that still unconcentrated, but particularly original, life. We speak here of the life upon which the substance of art, architectonics and of our racial culture are dependent. Those values which alone make us creative.” –pp. 351-352

Book Three: The Coming Reich – Chapter IV. Nordic German Law

“Nordic western man recognises an eternal law of nature and is able, thanks to this perception, to create a genuine cosmic science. Once with Odin we had produced the first great allegory of the moral idea of god. Odin, the highest god, was the guardian of law and of contracts. The law was sacred like the oath. The whole race of gods perished because Odin himself had sinned against the sacred nature of a contract—even though it was unwittingly, and as a result of being tricked by the bastard Loki. Only his death was expiation. Here we see the idea of honour as the ultimate measuring rod of the Nordic man. Its violation must be expiated other than through a drama.

A spiritually conditioned conformity to nature is also at work. This is something our scholars unsuspectingly pass by. Our present decline recapitulates the myth of the Edda, which, given present world events, attains a mystical, superhuman greatness. When honour, and law and strength of will disintegrate, the gods perish. A world epoch collapsed in a terrible blood red conflagration in 1914. It is the task of the future to meld together once more these three great entities under the aegis of the German folkish state.” –p. 405

Book Three: The Coming Reich – Chapter V. Church and Soul

“In place of the old testament pimps and cattle dealer stories, the Nordic sagas and legends will appear, at first simply told, and later represented through symbols. It is not the dream of hatred and murderous messiahism, but the dream of honour and freedom which must be kindled through Nordic, Germanic sagas—from Odin by way of the old folkish tales up to Eckehart and Walther von der Vogelweide. It will be reserved for a genial hand to select from the spiritual sediment of millennia the hitherto neglected pearls of the German spirit and to bind them together organically. What is temporal, Roman and Jewishly conditioned appears clearer than ever today. But all the more distinctly the real heartbeat of our folkish tales resounds. We hear tales of Eckehart and Luther in our ears. For more mature pupils a vivid picture of religious searching from Iran, India, indeed also from Hellas, will unroll, alien and yet simultaneously closely related. The longing to give the Nordic race soul its form as German church under the sign of the folkish Myth, that is for me the greatest task of our century. Just as the Roman Myth of the representation of god by the pope comprised very different peoples and opposing directions and bound them, so will the Myth of the blood, once grasped, bind like a magnet all personalities and religious communities, irrespective of their diversities, in a clear structure bearing relationship to a centre. Thus, we have a life creating arrangement transformed into the folkish totality. The coming life will then clarify and determine individual details of its structure. No one can foresee them today.” –p. 416

“History also, even the weaknesses of our great men, must not be quieted. What rises over and beyond, the eternal, the MYTHIC, must be felt out and shaped with a searching soul. Then a new succession of spirits will arise from Odin, Siegfried, Widukind, Friedrich III, the Hohenstaufen, Eckehart, Walther von der Vogelweide, Luther, Frederick the Great, Bach, Goethe, Beethoven, Schopenhauer, Bismarck, and their Germanic counterparts. Far removed from this spiritual racial line of German soul development stand Instistoris, Canisius, Ricardo, Marx, Lasker, and Rathenau. To serve this new evaluation is the calling of the schools in the coming German Reich. It is their noblest, if not sole, task in the coming decades. We must work until this evaluation has become a matter of course for all Germans. But the schools still await a great teacher of German history with the will to a German future. He will come when Myth has become life.” –p. 425

Book Three: The Coming Reich – Chapter VII. The Essential Unity

“A people is lost as a people and is dead, if, in surveying its history and in testing its will to the future, it cannot discover unity. No matter what forms the past may have taken in its course, when a nation arrives at the point of truly denying the allegorical images which stem from its first awakening, then it has denied the roots of its being and of its becoming and it has condemned itself to unfruitfulness. For history is not a development from nothing to something, nor from something insignificant to something great. It is not even the transformation of an essence into something completely different. Rather, the first racial folkish awakening brought about by heroes, gods and poets is the ultimate achievement for all times. This first great supreme MYTHIC achievement cannot, in essence, be perfected. It can merely take on other new forms. The value breathed into a god or hero is what is eternal in good and evil. Homeros represented the highest enhancement of what was Greek and guarded this even in decline. Jehovah is the symbol of unbridled Jewry. The belief in Jehovah is the strength of even the lowest Jewish haggler in Poland.

This unity also holds for German history, for its men, its values, for the very old and new Myth, and for the supporting ideas of German folkhood. One form of Odin is dead, that is, the Odin who was the highest of the many gods who appeared as the embodiment of a generation still given up to natural symbolisms. But Odin as the eternal mirrored image of the primal spiritual powers of Nordic man lives today just as he did over 5,000 years ago. Hermann Wirth finds traces of decline also in the ancient world of gods and influences of the Eskimo race. This may be so, but does not influence what is actually Germanic. He embodies himself in honour and heroism, in the creation of song and or art, in the protection of law and in the eternal search for wisdom. Odin learned that through the guilt of the gods, through the breaking of the bond to the builders of Valhalla, the race of the gods must perish. Despite this decline, he nevertheless commanded Heimdall to summon the Aesir with his horn for the final decisive battle. Dissatisfied, eternally searching, the god wandered through the universe to try to fathom his destiny and the nature of his being. He sacrificed an eye so that he might participate in the deepest wisdom. As an eternal wanderer he is a symbol of the eternally searching and becoming Nordic soul which cannot withdraw self confidently back to Jehovah and his representatives. The headstrong activity of the will, which, at first, drives so roughly through the Nordic lands in the battle songs about Thor, showed directly at their first appearance the innate, striving, wisdom seeking, metaphysical side in Odin the Wanderer. But the same spirit is revealed once again with the great, free Ostrogoths and the devout Ulfilas. It is also revealed, in accordance with the times, in the strengthened Knights Order and in the great Nordic western mystics as seen in their greatest spirit, Meister Eckehart. When, in Frederick’s Prussia, the soul which once gave birth to Odin was revived at Hohenfriedberg and Leuthen, it was also reborn in the soul of the Thomas church cantor, Bach, and in Goethe. From this viewpoint our assertion will appear deeply justified, that a heroic Nordic saga, a Prussian march, a composition by Bach, a sermon by Eckehart, and a monologue by Faust, are only varied experiences of one and the same soul. They are creations of the same will. They are eternal powers which were first united under the name Odin and which later gained form in Frederick the Great and Bismarck. As long as these powers are operative, as long as Nordic blood mixes with a Nordic soul and will, Nordic man will be active and work in mystic union. This is the prerequisite of every true to type creation.

Only the Myth and its forms are truly alive. This is the thing for which men are ready to die.” –pp. 456-457


By Ron McVan

On 22 Janurary 1961 I had lunch with Hermann Hesse at his home in Montagnola, in the Italian section of Switzerland. Snowflakes fluttering by the window, but in the distance, the sky was bright and clear. As I turned away from the view, I caught the clear blue eyes of Hesse sitting at the far end of the table.”What luck,” I said, “to find myself lunching with you today.””Nothing ever happens by chance” he answered, “Here, only the right guests meet. This is the Hermetic Circle.” –Miguel Serrano

During Viking times King Canute, a Danish ruler of England, was worshiped and flattered by his subjects. They thought he possessed supernatural powers which could keep them safe and happy. Being a wise monarch, Canute looked for a dramatic way to teach his subjects about Higher Power.

While visiting a seashore at Southhampton one day he ordered a chair to be brought to him. When the puzzled attendants obeyed, the King commanded, “Set the chair in the sand, in the part of the incoming tide.” As they did so, Canute sat down in the chair and asked “Now, do you think the tide will obey me if I command it to stop? We shall see.”

Canute commanded the tide to halt. It crept closer. He shouted the order once more. The tide advanced to splash around his ankles. The King continued his demands; the sea continued to splash against him with increasing force. Finally an impudent wave broke over the entire royal party, causing everyone to retreat, dripping wet. “Now you see,” King Canute merrily called out “that the highest of human persuasion is as nothing when compared with Natural Laws. Do not seek to control Universal Truth, but ally yourself with it.”

A little consideration of what takes place around us every day would clearly demonstrate that a higher law than that of our personal will regulates events. It is only when we open ourselves to the unseen forces which beckon to guide us that we free ourselves from the false ego-self and penetrate the inner strength of real being in the physical and noncorporeal realms.

Human thought races around the physical world jungle in which we live, in a frantic effort to find a way out. Our higher spirit self stands quietly on the hilltop overlooking the jungle, from which it clearly sees the way out. The human mind can begin the quest, but it cannot make the actual discovery of reality. Like the great Viking ships of old, our minds are fully capable of charting a course and raising the sail in order to begin the voyage, but having done that, it can only rest and let the winds of reality carry it to port. It is the wise man who learns how to listen. As Pythagoras would state to all his new students “Learn to be silent. Let your quiet mind listen and absorb.”

The Swiss psychologist Carl Jung was the first modern thinker to define the term “synchronicity” as a word to describe the perception of meaningful coincidence. Most often we do not see the pattern of synchronicity as it weaves throughout our lives. There are many various ways in which synchronicity makes itself known to us. We may be thinking of an individual whom we have not seen in a long time, only to surprisingly connect with them a short time later. At a bookstore we may find ourselves unconsciously directed to a precise volume that is highly essential to our personal life at that moment. A stranger may, for some unknown reason, frequently cross in our life in a way that is beyond what we would expect by pure chance. Casual messengers surround us constantly but we must learn how to acknowledge these signs and interpret them.

This seemingly imperceptible and somewhat telepathic ability can be fine tuned within the minds of most people who have the presence of mind to seperate the inner-self from the exterior-self. Like a guardian spirit, the messages attempt to convey to us that our lives are about to shift in some new direction.

When Abraham Lincoln was young he lived in a small farming community in Illinois. At that time Lincoln felt that his destiny demanded more than the life of a local craftsman or farmer, like the residents around him. One day he encountered a peddler who had obviously fallen on hard times, and who asked Lincoln to buy an old barrel of goods, mostly worthless, for a cost of one dollar. Lincoln decided to give the peddler the money and he cleaned out the barrel. What Lincoln happened to find at the bottom of the barrel of miscellaneous items to his delight was a full set of lawbooks. This seemingly random unintended purchase caused him to focus his studies to eventually become a lawyer, and ultimately find and attain his well-known place in history. We do ourselves much service when we leave the doors open to initiation and to not discount the many casual signals that beckon to us.

It was Jung’s belief that archetypes manifested themselves, at least occasionally, in physical events and in states of mind at the same time, also, under the law of synchronicity. Jung refers to the case of Swedenborg, who experienced a vision of fire in Stockholm at the same time as an actual fire was raging. Jung considered that some change in Swedenborg’s state of mind gave him temporary access to “absolute knowledge” to an area in which the limits of space and time are transcended.

We contact the higher powers only as we loosen our attachments to them. Most people’s waking hours are consumed with useless mundane efforts. It is a tendency to place many unnecessary needs and demands upon ourselves based upon our ego-directed drives. These areas of negative influence all interfere with the natural flow of the real gift. One must be aware of a negativity before it can be destroyed. Some of our negatives are unknown to us and it may require a synchronistic shock or crisis to reveal them.

All the triumphs and failures that can be experienced by man in this physical world are valuable lessons for our developing spirits, which are characterized and expressed by the folk-god archetypes and legends found within our indigenous mythological lore.

Synchronistic phenomena among the Aryan race occur not uncommonly when a constellation of active psyches converge to the foreground of an ethnic archetype such as Wotan, or other formidable patriarchal or matriarchal gods and goddesses. These powerful, influential and usually emotional energies are able to move the unconscious, and with it the archetype, into the foreground of the conscious. The microcosm of our interior psyche by way of the archetype reflects itself on the screen of the macrocosm of sense perception. Inner eternity and outer eternity meet in man, and thus we come to realize that our bodies serve as virtual portals between two very real and highly profound worlds.

Jung maintained that an ethnic god and archetype, such as Wotan, is not purely psychic—the stuff of dreams, but rather psycho physical—only partly psychic. By this theory the archetype is capable of manifesting in a dual fashion, appearing internally as a psychic image, and externally as a physical event, at times even as a physical object.

In Stephen A. Hoeller’s book The Gnostic Jung, he writes,

The archetype then, when manifesting in a synchronistic phenomenon, is truly awesome if not outright miraculous—an uncanny dweller on the threshold. At once psychical and physical, it might be likened to the two-faced Roman god Janus. The two faces of the archetype are joined in the common head of meaning, which is the chief characteristic of human individuation.

The deeper we probe into gnostic mysteries we find that the union of man and archetype, as well as life and spirit, are not just a casual relationship but an essential element to free us from false ego and the confines of a lower conscious physical world.

God-like image and essence are not made, they become. The ethnic god Wotan has co-existed with Aryan man since the dawn of time through a wide range of patriarchal images. The popularized Viking characterization is but one of the many masks of Wotan. Today, the presence of such manifesting divinities might surface through some form of modern dress as apparition entity of a mystic configuration. Our ethnic divinities are never static, congealed in divine perfection, but not unlike man, are also growing, learning intelligences of many degrees much higher yet similar to our own.

Synchronicity is a means by which our gods and ancestors can reach out to us and through us and in turn provides us with available pathways to higher being and consciousness. Man is the individualization of all functions, affinities and powers of the universe, and consciousness is the measure of individualization rendering actual that which is virtual in the cosmic memory.

From any point, A line reaches back, And attaches to a far distant center. There is no unconnected life in this world, Nor a point in time, Unknown by any other point, Nor a tear shed in a vacuum. –Hermes

Henry Williamson: Nature’s Visionary

Originally published in National Vanguard magazine, Issue No. 117, 1997.

by Mark Deavin

henrywilliamson1The fact that the name of Henry Williamson is today so little known across the White world is a sad reflection of the extent to which Western man has allowed himself to be deprived of his culture and identity over the last 50 years. Until the Second World War Williamson was generally regarded as one of the great English Nature writers, possessing a unique ability to capture the essential essence and meaning of the natural world in all its variety and forms.

His most famous Nature book, Tarka the Otter, was published in 1927 and became one of the best-loved children’s books of all time, with its vivid descriptions of animal and woodland life in the English countryside. It was publicly praised by leading English literary figures such as Thomas Hardy, Arnold Bennett, and John Galsworthy. Hardy called Tarka a “remarkable book,” while Bennett declared it to be “marvelous.” Even T.E. Lawrence, also known as Lawrence of Arabia, admitted that “the book did move me and gratify me profoundly.”

Tarka was awarded the coveted Hawthornden Prize for literature in 1928 and eventually attracted the interest of Walt Disney, who offered a small fortune for the film rights. Williamson, however, was concerned that such an arrangement might compromise his artistic integrity, and he rejected the offer.

Seventy years later, however, Tarka, like the majority of Williamson’s books, is relatively unknown and has only just become available in print again. The reason: Like several other leading European authors, Williamson was a victim of the Second World War. Not only did his naturalistic message conflict with the materialistic culture that has pervaded the Western world since 1945, but he himself was a political fighter who actively opposed the war on ideological grounds.

Born in Brockley, southeast London, in December 1895, Williamson was educated at Colfe’s Grammar School, Lewisham. He spent much of his early life exploring the nearby Kent countryside, where his love of Nature and animals and his artistic awareness and sensitivity were first stimulated. Never satisfied unless he had seen things for himself, he always made sure that he studied things closely enough to get the letter as well as the spirit of reality. This enabled him to develop a microscopic observational ability which came to dominate his life.

Williamson joined the British Army at the outbreak of war in 1914 and fought at the Battle of the Somme and at Passchendaele, where he was seriously wounded. It was this experience as a frontline soldier which was the redefining moment in his life and artistic development, stimulating in him a lifelong Faustian striving to experience and comprehend the “life flow” permeating his own, and all, existence.

His spiritual development continued after the war. In 1919 he read for the first time the visionary The Story of My Heart, which was written by the English Nature writer Richard Jefferies and published in 1893. For Williamson, discovering Jefferies acted as a liberation of his consciousness, stimulating all the stored impressions of his life to return and reveal a previously smothered and overlaid self. It was not just an individual self that he discovered, however, but a racial self in which he began to recognize his existence as but a link in an eternal chain that reached back into the mists of time, and which — if it were permitted — would carry on forever.

pet9Williamson sensed this truth in his own feeling of oneness with Nature and the ancient, living, breathing Universe as represented by the life-giving sun. It also was reflected in his idea of mystical union between the eternal sunlight and the long history of the earth. For Williamson the ancient light of the sun was something “born in me” and represented the real meaning of his own existence by illuminating his ancestral past and revealing the truth of redemption through Nature. Like Jefferies before him, Williamson “came to feel the long life of the earth back in the dimmest past while the sun of the moment was warm on me … This sunlight linked me through the ages to that past consciousness. From all the ages my soul desired to take that soul-life which had flowed through them as the sunbeams had continually found an earth.” [1]

After the war Williamson became a journalist for a time while beginning work on his first novel, The Beautiful Years (1922). Finally he decided to break all contact with London and in 1922 moved to an ancient cottage in Georgham, North Devon, which had been built in the days of King John. Living alone and in hermit fashion at first, Williamson disciplined himself to study Nature with the same meticulous observations as Jefferies, tramping about the countryside and often sleeping out. The door and windows of the cottage were never closed, and his strange family of dogs and cats, gulls, buzzards, magpies, and one otter cub were free to come and go as they chose.

It was his experiences with the otter cub which stimulated Williamson to write Tarka. He had rescued it after its mother had been shot by a farmer, and he saved its life by persuading his cat to suckle it along with her kitten. Eventually the otter cub was domesticated and became Williamson’s constant companion, following him around like a dog. On one walk, however, it walked into a rabbit trap, panicked, and ran off. Williamson spent years following otters’ haunts in the rivers Taw and Torridge, hunting for his lost pet.

The search was in vain, but his intimate contact with the animal world gave him the inspiration for Tarka: “The eldest and biggest of the litter was a dog cub, and when he drew his first breath he was less than five inches long from his nose to where his tail joined his back-bone. His fur was soft and grey as the buds of the willow before they open up at Eastertide. He was called Tarka, which was the name given to the otters many years ago by men dwelling in hut circles on the moor. It means Little Water Wanderer, or Wandering as Water.”

Williamson never attempted to pass any kind of moral judgment on Nature and described its evolutionary realities in a manner reminiscent of Jack London: “Long ago, when moose roamed in the forest at the mountain of the Two Rivers, otters had followed eels migrating from ponds and swamps to the seas. They had followed them into shallow waters; and one fierce old dog had run through the water so often that he swam, and later, in his great hunger, had put under his head to seize them so often that he dived. Other otters had imitated him. The moose are gone, and their bones lie under the sand in the soft coal which was the forest by the estuary, thousands of years ago. Yet otters have not been hunters in water long enough for the habit to become an instinct.”

Williamson actually rewrote Tarka 17 times, “always and only for the sake of a greater truth.” [2] Mere polishing for grace and expression or literary style did not interest him, and he strove always to illuminate a scene or incident with what he considered was authentic sunlight.

He also believed that European man could be spiritually healthy and alive to his destiny only by living in close accord with Nature. Near the end of Tarka, for instance, he delightfully describes how “a scarlet dragonfly whirred and darted over the willow snag, watched by a girl sitting on the bank … Glancing round, she realized that she alone had seen the otter. She flushed, and hid her grey eyes with her lashes. Since childhood she had walked the Devon rivers with her father looking for flowers and the nests of birds, passing some rocks and trees as old friends, seeing a Spirit everywhere, gentle in thought to all her eyes beheld.”

Williamson’s sequel to Tarka was Salar the Salmon, which was also the result of many months of intimate research and observation of Nature in the English countryside. Then came The Lone SwallowThe Peregrine’s Saga, Life in a Devon Village, and A Clear Water Stream, all of which, in the eyes of the English writer Naomi Lewis, displayed “a crystal intensity of observation and a compelling use of words, which exactly match the movement and life that he describes.”

To Williamson himself, however, his Nature stories were not the most important part of his literary output. His greatest effort went into his two semi-autobiographical novel groups, the tetralogy collected as The Flax of Dreams, which occupied him for most of the 1920’s, and the 15-volume A Chronicle of Ancient Sunlight, which began with The Dark Lantern in 1951 and ended with The Gale of the World in 1969.

Williamson’s experiences during the First World War had politicized him for life. A significant catalyst in this development was the Christmas truce of 1914, when British and German frontline soldiers spontaneously left their trenches, abandoned the fighting, and openly greeted each other as brothers.

Williamson later spoke of an “incoherent sudden realization, after the fraternization of Christmas Day, that the whole war was based on lies.” Another experience that consolidated this belief was when a German officer helped him remove a wounded British soldier who was draped over barbed wire on the front line. He was thus able to contrast his own wartime experiences with the vicious anti-German propaganda orchestrated by the British political establishment both during and after the war, and he was able to recognize the increasing moral bankruptcy of that establishment. In Williamson’s view the fact that over half of the 338 Conservative Members of Parliament who dominated the 1918 governing coalition were company directors and financiers who had grown rich from war profits was morally wrong and detestable.

This recognition, in itself a reflection of an already highly developed sense of altruism, meant that Williamson could never be content with just isolating himself in the countryside. He had to act to try to change the world for the better. Perhaps not surprisingly he came to see in the idea of National Socialism a creed which not only represented his own philosophy of life, but which offered the chance of practical salvation for Western Civilization. He saw it as evolving directly from the almost religious transcendence which he, and thousands of soldiers of both sides, had experienced in the trenches of the First World War. This transcendence resulted in a determination that the “White Giants” of Britain and Germany would never go to war against each other again, and it rekindled a sense of racial kinship and unity of the Nordic peoples over and above separate class and national loyalties. [3]

Consequently, not only was Williamson one of the first of the “phoenix generation” to swear allegiance to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists, but he quickly came to believe that National Socialist Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, pointed the way forward for European man. Williamson identified closely with Hitler — “the great man across the Rhine whose life symbol is the happy child,” seeing him as a light-bringing phoenix risen from the chaos of European civilization in order to bring a millennium of youth to the dying Western world. [4]

Williamson visited Germany in 1935 to attend the National Socialist Congress at Nuremberg and saw there the beginnings of the “land fit for heroes” which had been falsely promised the young men of Britain during the First World War by the government’s war propagandists. He was very impressed by the fact that, while the British people continued to languish in poverty and mass unemployment, National Socialism had created work for seven million unemployed, abolished begging, freed the farmers from the mortgages which had strangled production, developed laws on conservation, and, most importantly, had developed in a short period of time a deep sense of racial community. [5]

Inspired to base their lives on a religious idea, Williamson believed that the German people had been reborn with a spiritual awareness and physical quality that he himself had long sought. Everywhere he saw “faces that looked to be breathing extra oxygen; people free from mental fear.” [6]

Through the Hitler Youth movement, which brought back fond memories of his own time as a Boy Scout, he recognized “the former pallid leer of hopeless slum youth transformed into the suntan, the clear eye, the broad and easy rhythm of the poised young human being.”

Hermenau_GerdaIn Hitler’s movement Williamson identified not only an idea consistent with Nature’s higher purpose to create order out of chaos, but the physical encapsulation of a striving toward Godhood. Influenced by his own lifelong striving for perfection, Williamson believed that the National Socialists represented “a race that moves on the poles of mystic, sensual delight. Every gesture is a gesture from the blood, every expression a symbolic utterance … Everything is of the blood, of the senses.” [7]

Williamson always believed that any spiritual improvement could only take place as a result of a physical improvement, and, like his mentor Richard Jefferies, he was a firm advocate of race improvement through eugenics. He himself was eventually to father seven children, and he decried the increasing lack of racial quality in the mass of the White population. He urged that “the physical ideal must be kept steadily in view” and called for the enforcement of a discipline and system along the lines of ancient Sparta in order to realize it. [8]

In 1936 Williamson and his family moved to Norfolk, where he threw himself into a new life as a farmer, the first three years of which are described in The Story of a Norfolk Farm (1941). But with the Jews increasingly using England as a base from which to agitate for war against Germany, Williamson remained very active through his membership in the British Union of Fascists in promoting the idea of Anglo-German friendship. Until it was banned in 1940, Williamson wrote eight articles for the party newspaper Action and had 13 extracts reprinted from his book The Patriot’s Progress. He called consistently for Hitler to be given “that amity he so deserved from England,” so as to prevent another brothers’ war that would see the victory only of Asiatic Bolshevism and the enslavement of Europe. On September 24, 1939, for instance, he wrote of his continuing conviction that Hitler was “determined to do and create what is right. He is fighting evil. He is fighting for the future.”

Williamson viewed the declaration of war on Germany by Britain and France as a spiteful act of an alien system that was determined to destroy the prospect of a reborn and regenerated European youth. And his continued opposition to it led to his arrest and internment in June 1940, along with Mosley and hundreds of others. His subsequent release on parole was conditional upon his taking no further action to oppose the war. Silently, however, Williamson remained true to his convictions. Visiting London in January 1944, he observed with satisfaction that the ugliness and immorality represented by its financial and banking sector had been “relieved a little by a catharsis of high explosive” and somewhat “purified by fire.”

National Socialism’s wartime defeat, however, dealt Williamson a heavy blow. Decrying the death struggle of “the European cousin nations” he lamented that “the hopes that have animated or agitated my living during the past thirty years and four months are dead.” [9]

Consequently, his first marriage broke up in 1947, and he returned to North Devon to live in the hilltop hut which he had bought in 1928 with the prize money from Tarka.

But it was not in Williamson’s character to give up on what he knew to be true and right, and, as his most recent biographer makes clear, he never recanted his ideas about Hitler. [10]

On the contrary, he continued to publicly espouse what he believed, and he fervently contested the postwar historical record distorted by false Jewish propaganda — even though his effort resulted, as he realized it would, in his continued literary ostracism.

In The Gale of the World, the last book of his Chronicle, published in 1969, Williamson has his main character Phillip Maddison question the moral and legal validity of the Nuremberg Trials. Among other things, he muses why the Allied officers who ordered the mass fire bombing of Germany, and the Soviet generals who ordered the mass rape and mass murder during the battle for Berlin, were not on trial; and whether it would ever be learned that the art treasures found in German salt mines were put there purely to be out of the way of the Allied bombing. He also questions the official view of the so called “Holocaust,” stating his belief that rather than being the result of a mass extermination plan, the deaths in German concentration camps were actually caused by typhus brought about by the destruction of all public utility systems by Allied bombing.

In the book Williamson also reiterates his belief that Adolf Hitler was never the real enemy of Britain. And in one scene Phillip Maddison, in conversation with his girl friend Laura, questions whether it was Hitler’s essential goodness and righteousness that was responsible for his downfall in the midst of evil and barbarity:

Laura: I have a photograph of Hitler with the last of his faithful boys outside the bunker in Berlin. He looks worn out, but he is so gentle and kind to those twelve- and thirteen-year-old boys. Phillip: Too gentle and kind Laura … Now the faithful will be hanged.

Williamson also remained loyal in the realm of political ideas and action. When Oswald Mosley had returned to public life in Britain in 1948 by launching the Union Movement, Williamson was one of the first to give his support for an idea which he had long espoused: the unity of Western man. Contributing an article to the first issue of the movement’s magazine, The European, he called for the development of a new type of European man with a set of spiritual values that were in tune with himself and Nature.

Such positive and life-promoting thinking did not endear Williamson to the powers that be in the grey and increasingly decadent cultural climate of post-Second World War Britain. His books were ignored, and his artistic achievement remained unrecognized, with even the degrees committee at the university to which he was a benefactor twice vetoing a proposal to award him an honorary doctorate. The evidence suggests, in fact, that Williamson was subject to a prolonged campaign of literary ostracism by people inside the British establishment who believed he should be punished for his political opinions.

For Williamson, however, the machinations of trivial people in a trivial age were irrelevant; what was important was that he remained true in the eyes of posterity to himself, his ancestors, and the eternal truth which he recognized and lived by. In fact, as one observer described him during these later years, he remained a “lean, vibrant, almost quivering man with … blazing eyes, possessing an exceptional presence [and a] … continued outspoken admiration for Hitler … as a ‘great and good man.’” [11]

Certainly, Williamson knew himself, and he knew what was necessary for Western man to find himself again and to fulfill his destiny. In The Gale of the World he cited Richard Jefferies to emphasize that higher knowledge by which he led his life and by which he was convinced future generations would have to lead their lives in order to attain the heights that Nature demanded of them: “All the experience of the greatest city in the world could not withhold me. I rejected it wholly. I stood bare-headed in the sun, in the presence of earth and air, in the presence of the immense forces of the Universe. I demand that which will make me more perfect now this hour.”

Henry Williamson’s artistic legacy must endure because, as one admirer pondered in his final years, his visionary spirit and striving “came close to holding the key to life itself.” He died on August 13, 1977, aged 81.


1. Ann Williamson, Henry Williamson: Tarka and the Last Romantic, (London, 1995), 65.
2. Eleanor Graham, “Introduction” to the Penguin edition of Tarka the Otter (1985).
3. Higginbottom, Intellectuals and British Fascism , (London, 1992), 10.
4. Henry Williamson, The Flax of Dreams (London, 1936) and The Phoenix Generation (London, 1961).
5. Henry Williamson, A Solitary War (London, 1966).
6. Higginbotham, op. cit., 41-42.
7. J. W. Blench, Henry Williamson and the Romantic Appeal of Fascism , (Durham, 1988).
8. Henry Williamson, The Children of Shallow Ford, (London, 1939).
9. Higginbotham, op. cit., 49.
10. Ann Williamson, op. cit., 195.
11. Higginbotham, op. cit., 53.

Stephen McNallen: Metagenetics – An Update

Genetics and Beyond
Metagenetics – An Update (1999)

by Stephen A. McNallen

Back in the early 1980’s, I wrote a short article in The Runestone called “Metagenetics.” The shock wave from those three pages has caused more controversy than anything else I have ever written. The mere mention of metagenetics causes some people to go into a rage and a rant – so, both to inform my friends and infuriate my enemies, I decided it was time for an update on the subject!

In the original piece, metagenetics was presented as the idea that “ancestry matters – that there are spiritual and metaphysical implications to heredity.” I tied together such varied topics as Jung’s theories of archetypes, rebirth in the family line, psychic links between twins, and the Norse concept of the soul to support that statement.

The basic outlines remain the same. However, I have made refinements, added information from British biologist Rupert Sheldrake as well as other writers in psychology and the life sciences, and generally thought a great deal about just what metagenetics means in the long run.

If I had to modify the definition of metagenetics after all these years, I’d say that it was “the hypothesis that there are spiritual or metaphysical implications to physical relatedness among humans which correlate with, but go beyond, the known limits of genetics.” This is more complicated than the simple sentence from the 1980’s, but it is somewhat more exact – and it opens the possibility that the mechanism involved might not be as simple as information stored in the DNA molecule.

The evidence in support of metagenetics is drawn from several disciplines, and I won’t go into it here. I am writing a book which will set it out in great detail. In this article, instead, I will mention some of the main features of the hypothesis, and then list a number of implications

Features of the Metagenetic Hypothesis

Metagenetics is characterized by:

Relatedness – It describes a connection, independent of time and space, which links human beings. (The general principles governing metagenetics also apply to the animals, plants, other organic kingdoms, and indeed all self-organizing systems to include crystals and molecules. Metagenetics, though, is a subset of this grander scheme and applies specifically to humans and their spirituality.)

Similarity – We are used to things being related in time and space, but this is not essential to the operation of metagenetics. Instead, metagenetics says that people who are genetically related to each other share a non-physical bond that is not dependent on location or time, and that the closeness of that bond is determined by the degree of similarity. Our language unconsciously expresses that idea, as we talk about being “close” or “distant” relatives.

Hierarchy – This is implied by the idea of similarity, described above. All humans are related, and for that matter it is true that we are “kin to all life,” as some folks are fond of saying. However, we are not equally related to all. Within the broad circle that is the human family there is a collection of concentric circles representing the many Folksouls – and even this is no neat and tidy arrangement. Individual families, clans and tribes have their own subdivisions or “mini-Folksouls,” and the whole is dynamic and shifting.

Holism – The components that make up the individual human being are best seen as comprising a whole. This is typically represented as body, mind, and spirit, though the psychosomatic (mind-body) complex in traditional Germanic lore is considerably more complicated than this. People commonly acknowledge that the body and mind affect each other, but fewer of them understand that the body (to include the brain, the nervous system, and the apparatus of heredity) is also connected to the spiritual or religious.

Spirituality – Relatedness and similarity influence the temperament, values, psychic connection, probable reincarnation, and the general tone of spirituality or religion. Some of these things – temperament and values, in particular – may have their origin in the actual coding of DNA, but the mechanism for the other connections may not be within the realm of the physical sciences as they are presently understood. There seems to be a continuum at work, and it may be represented like this:

Implications of Metagenetics

Several things quickly become obvious.

Ancestry matters. Most Asatruar will agree with that statement, but fewer will understand that the ancestors are with us, now and always, because of the time-transcending nature of the metagenetic bond. To the extent that rebirth occurs within the family line, we are those ancestors, manifested again in Midgard! Furthermore, that bond is special – it is closer than our bond to non-ancestors.

We are not “one.” Although there is a level on which every person is connected through the collective unconscious of humanity as a whole, the closeness of the connections varies immensely. Indeed, to some extent we are linked to all life – but that hardly causes us to value protozoa, goldfish, and camels as much as we do our brother or our father! The degree of connection is determined by similarity.

There are no solitary rituals. All our deeds feed back into the collective unconscious (C.G. Jung) or the morphic field (Rupert Sheldrake) – or in traditional Asatru terms, the Well of Urth. It seems to be that the more intense the emotion accompanying the deed, or the more symbolically alive an action is, the more it will affect all those who are members of the group in question. Our blots, our oaths of might, and our other exchanges with our Gods and Goddesses, then, can be expected to influence all Asatruar, and all our brothers and sisters of European descent, in a fairly immediate way. A whole nest of hierarchies are jostled by all our significant acts.

Our religion is a function of who we are, not just what we believe. Since the human being is a holistic entity, our spirituality cannot be considered something apart from our physical ancestry. In terms of both genetics and metagenetics, our ancestors are encoded into our very beings. From values and temperament – which have been shown to correlate statistically with heredity – to the deeper issues of spirit, our forefathers and foremothers continue to influence us. It seems reasonable, then, to predict that people will tend to be most fulfilled by the religious and spiritual paths of their ancestors. Properly presented, the ancient ways of one’s people should exert a powerful draw on the individual.

The beliefs of our ancestors are largely confirmed by modern psychology and the biological sciences. Most especially, the Jungian collective unconscious and Sheldrake’s hypotheses concerning “morphic fields” and “morphic resonance” are very close to the Germanic ideas surrounding the Well of Urth, in which orlog or “fate” is laid.

Metagenetics – an Evolving Concept

Metagenetics, then, continues to mature as new information becomes available. Far from remaining static over the last decade and a half, it has incorporated new evidence and has found validation in the writings of other scientists as time has gone by.

The transcendental importance of the ancestral bond has always been sensed by Asatru, and by other native religions around the world. We who acknowledge that bond now have striking validation of what our inner voice has told us all along!

Source: Reprint from Runestone #26, Summer 1999

Jung and the Völkisch Movement

By Dr. Kerry Bolton

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), in founding Analytical Psychology, did so as a break and a contradistinction from the psychological school of his mentor Sigmund Freud. The Jungian and the Freudian stand as the contrasts between the Germanic and the Jewish world-views in the realm of psychology. Indeed it has been suggested that Freud’s observations were largely derived from mainly Jewish patients.

Jung commented:

… It is a quite unpardonable mistake to accept the conclusions of a Jewish psychology as generally valid.

The Jewish spirit that infuses Freudianism has been remarked upon by others qualified to speak, both Jew and Gentile. The Jewish historian Howard Sachar considered the chief motivation of the Jewish Freudians to be, “the unconscious desire of Jews to unmask the respectability of European society which closed them out… The B’nai B’rith Lodge of Vienna for example delighted in listening to Freud air his theories.” (Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish History).

Thomas Szasz, professor of psychology, State University, NY, wrote of Freud’s “anti-Gentilism” as being “an important aspect of his personality and predilections.”

Collective Unconscious

Jung gave science an important contribution with his theory that there is not only an individual unconscious but also a collective unconscious, including a racial or ethnic unconscious impacting significantly upon the individual and determining his very Being and Identity. It was a scientific development and elaboration of the concept held by Germanic philosophers such as Herder, postulating that each people, or nation, has its own “soul.”

Jung stated:

No doubt on an earlier and deeper level of psychic development, where it is still impossible to distinguish between an Aryan, Semitic, Hamitic, or Mongolian mentality, all human races have a common collective psyche. But with the beginning of racial differentiation, essential differences are developed in the collective psyche as well.

Jung indicated what this means in practical terms, as for example when politicians and religious dogmatists try to impose a multi-racial society. Jung wrote:

For this reason we cannot transplant the spirit of a foreign race in globo into our own mentality without sensible injury to the latter, a fact which does not however deter sundry natures of feeble instinct from affecting Indian philosophy and the like.

The Shadow

Another major contribution from Jung was his theory of individuation, or the Total Being brought into effect by integrating one’s repressed unconscious into the conscious Self. To this process which is central to Jungian therapy Jung applied the German word Heilsweg, the “sacred way” of healing. On his way towards individuation one confronts the repressed unconscious or Dark side of oneself referred to by Jung as The Shadow Self.

In keeping with Jung’s theme of the collective unconscious, not only the individual but an entire nation or ethnos possess its own unique collective ‘Shadow.’ This is what Jung addressed to the Germanic nation when he wrote,

We cannot possibly get beyond our present level of culture unless we receive a powerful impetus from our primitive roots. But we shall receive it only if we go back behind our cultural level, thus giving the suppressed primitive man in ourselves a chance to develop. How this is to be done is a problem I have been trying to solve for years… The existing edifice is rotten. We need some new foundations. We must dig down to the primitive in us, for only out of the conflict between civilized man and the Germanic barbarian will there come what we need: a new experience of God…

Völkisch Movement

Jung saw the primitive or Shadow of the Germanic folk repressed by a millennium of Christian moral bondage. When what is natural to an individual or an entire folk is repressed it will come out eventually in some form or another. It was Jung’s concern that the Germanic Shadow be brought to consciousness with the result of a collective individuation of the whole folk. He had stated in 1919, the very year Hitler joined the newly formed German Workers Party:

As the Christian view of the world loses its authority, the more menacingly will the ‘blond beast’ be heard prowling about in its underground prison, ready at any moment to burst out with devastating consequences.

Jung’s desire to see the Germanic folk individuate brought him into contact with the energetic völkisch movements that had emerged during the late 19th century and were ever more determined with the humiliation of Germany and Austria following World War I. Likewise, these movements saw the compatibility of Jungian psychology with their own ideology.

One of the völkisch theorists was Jacob Hauer, founder of the Nordic Faith Movement. He became involved with Jungian conferences and associations during the 1930’s. In 1934 he gave a lecture on number symbolism which had a great influence on Jung, and during the course of the same lecture Hauer used Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious to suggest the existence of a racial unconscious with racial symbolism.

The year previously the National Socialists had assumed power, and two years later Jung wrote his essay Wotan, stating that the NS Reich was summoning forth the repressed Shadow or Wotanic unconscious of Germany. In 1936 he wrote:

The depths of Wotan’s character explain more of National Socialism than all the economic, political and psychological factors put together.

With rivalry for spiritual allegiance in NS Germany between the so-called “German Christians” who had Aryanized Jesus, and the pagan, anti-Christian völkisch movement, Jung expressly condemned the former and urged Germans to throw their whole support behind Hauer’s movement to bring forth that “new experience of God,” of Wotan. He described Hauer as “god (i.e. Wotan) possessed,” and Hauer’s activities as “the tragic and really heroic efforts of a conscientious scholar.”

To Jung the Old Religion was very much alive, albeit underground and waiting to resurface. He wrote:

No, memories of the old German religion have not been extinguished. They say there are greybeards in Westphalia who still know where the old images of the gods lie hidden; on their death beds they tell their youngest grandchild, who carries the secret… In Westphalia, the former Saxony, not everything that lies buried is dead.

In our present time, with the European soul buried beneath excessive materialism and superficiality, and the dying, putrescent vestiges of a thousand years of Judeo-Christian spiritual repression, Jung provides an insight whereby the European folk as a collectivity might find its way back to a sense of being. As that great exponent of European Being, the existentialist philosopher and supporter of National Socialism, Martin Heidegger himself has written:

The past of human existence as a whole is not a nothing, but that to which we always return when we have put down deep roots. But this return is not a passive acceptance of what has been, but its transmutation.